Publications

2019

  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Boscarello, L., Cislaghi, A., & Mancini, M.. (2019). Review of time-of-concentration equations and a new proposal in italy. Journal of hydrologic engineering, 24(10), 04019039-1 – 04019039-11.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2019a,
    ABSTRACT = {The time of concentration is a fundamental parameter used for hydrological analysis
    in professional and scientific communities. The availability of equations for its estimation
    leads to significant variability and uncertainty. In this work, the most commonly used 24 equations
    were selected among the empirically based models to compare their estimates and to quantify
    the accuracy in predicting the time of concentration observed from 46 river basins in northern Italy.
    The practical definition for direct time of concentration estimation used in this work computes it
    as the time from the end of effective rainfall to the end of direct runoff on the recession limb
    of the total hydrograph. The results show a large discrepancy between the observed values and those
    estimated with the selected equations: the best performances are achieved by Bransby-Williams, Giandotti,
    Soil Conservation Service, Témez, and Ferro equations. The catchment classification into classes of basins
    with homogeneous climatological and physiographic characteristics shows that none of the analyzed
    equations significantly improves the predictions. Finally, a new equation is proposed for the area
    of the Upper Po River Basin that can significantly decrease the time-of-concentration estimation error.},
    year={2019},
    journal={Journal of Hydrologic Engineering},
    volume={24},
    number={10},
    doi={10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001818},
    title={Review of Time-of-Concentration Equations and a New Proposal in Italy},
    url={https://ascelibrary.org/doi/10.1061/%28ASCE%29HE.1943-5584.0001818},
    author={Ravazzani,G. and Boscarello,L. and Cislaghi,A. and Mancini,M.},
    pages={04019039-1 - 04019039-11},
    language={English}
    }

2018

  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Ceppi, A., Curti, D., Ravazzani, G., Feki, M., Cerri, L., Galletti, L., Meucci, S., Bianchi, M., Senesi, C., & Cinquetti, P.. (2018). Real time monitoring of hydrological variables and percolation flux control. Environmental engineering and management journal, 17(10), 2337-2348.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018h,
    ABSTRACT = {Leachate production and management are recognized as one of the greatest problems associated with environmentally operations
    for landfills. Variations in leachate quality and quantity are related to rainfall depth and its infiltration processes into landfill.
    This work examines important hydrological problems of the Scarpino site (Genoa, northern Italy), a garbage dump which covers
    the valley of a first order flash creek with a surface of 100 hectares, located in one of the rainiest area of Italy. The landfill is one
    of the largest in Europe and it operates since the Sixties collecting waste at a rate of about 1000 tons per day. Its present structure
    shows several horizontal layers of waste deposit separated by covers of compacted soil for a depth ranging from 40 to 70 meters.
    The landfill surface is subdivided in zones delimited by artificial slopes.
    The hydrology of the landfill is analyzed with a real time monitoring system which has been set up in order to manage and control
    leachate fluxes and landfill slope stability acquiring: (i) meteorological variables, (ii) soil moisture profiles, (iii) leachate levels
    inside the landfill body, (iv) discharge measurements of surface runoff basin and drained leachate at the landfill outlet, and (v)
    leachate levels inside the storage tanks. Although it was a preliminary development state, this monitoring system was able to
    provide the necessary information in order to evaluate the overall landfill hydrological response, particularly focused on the leachate
    volume production.},
    year={2018},
    issn={1843-3707},
    journal={Environmental Engineering and Management Journal},
    volume={17},
    number={10},
    title={Real time monitoring of hydrological variables and percolation flux control},
    url={http://www.eemj.icpm.tuiasi.ro/pdfs/vol17/no10/6_101_Mancini_18.pdf},
    keywords={landfill hydrology; leachate; real-time monitoring},
    author={Mancini, M. and Ceppi, A. and Curti, D. and Ravazzani, G. and Feki, M. and Cerri, L. and Galletti, L. and Meucci, S. and Bianchi, M. and Senesi, C. and Cinquetti, P.},
    pages={ 2337-2348},
    language={English}
    }
  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Corbari, C., Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Menenti, M., Jia, L., Romero, R., Sobrino, J. A., Meucci, S., Salerno, R., Branca, G., & Zucaro, R.. (2018). Sim: smart irrigation from soil moisture forecasting using satellite and hydro-meteorological modelling. Paper presented at the XXXVI convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Ancona.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2018g,
    address = {Ancona},
    author = {Marco Mancini and Chiara Corbari and Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Massimo Menenti and Li Jia and Romualdo Romero and José Antonio Sobrino and Stefania Meucci and Raffaele Salerno and Giacomo Branca and Raffaella Zucaro},
    title = {SIM: Smart Irrigation from soil Moisture forecasting using satellite and hydro-meteorological modelling},
    booktitle = {{XXXVI} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2018},
    pages = {115},
    ISBN = {9788894379907}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., Curti, D., Galletti, L., Meucci, S., & Mancini, M.. (2018). Il metodo slope-area per il monitoraggio in continuo della portata. Paper presented at the XXXVI convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Ancona.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2018f,
    address = {Ancona},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessandro Ceppi and Diego Curti and Luca Galletti and Stefania Meucci and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Il metodo slope-area per il monitoraggio in continuo della portata},
    booktitle = {{XXXVI} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2018},
    pages = {87},
    ISBN = {9788894379907}
    }
  • [DOI] Feki, M., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., Milleo, G., & Mancini, M.. (2018). Impact of infiltration process modeling on soil water content simulations for irrigation management. Water, 10(7), 850.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018e,
    ABSTRACT = {The uncertainty in a hydrological model, due to its structure
    or implemented input parameters, affects the accuracy of simulations that
    are usually used for important applications such as drought predictions,
    flood risk assessment, irrigation scheduling, ground water recharge and
    contamination. Several models describing soil infiltration processes have
    been developed. Some are analytical, while others implement numerical
    solutions of the Richards' equation. The objective of this work was to
    assess the impact of infiltration process modeling on soil water content
    simulations. For this study, different infiltration models were included
    within FEST-WB (Flash Flood Event-based Spatially-distributed rainfall-runoff
    Transformations-Water Balance) distributed hydrological model (SCS-CN, Green and Ampt,
    Philip and Ross solution). Performances of implemented infiltration models in
    simulating soil water content were evaluated against observations acquired in
    the experimental site located in a maize field in northern Italy. Soil water
    content was monitored together with continuous measurements of meteorological data.
    A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the most important parameters
    governing infiltration process in the different models tested. A comparison
    of soil water content simulations show that Ross solution allowed the
    description of soil moisture variation along the vertical, but simpler
    lumped models provide sufficient accuracy when properly calibrated},
    year={2018},
    issn={2073-4441},
    journal={Water},
    volume={10},
    number={7},
    doi={10.3390/w10070850},
    title={Impact of infiltration process modeling on soil water content simulations for irrigation management},
    url={http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/10/7/850},
    publisher={MDPI},
    keywords={Green and Ampt, Philip equation, Richards equation, Soil moisture},
    author={Feki, M. and Ravazzani, G. and Ceppi, A. and Milleo, G. and Mancini, M.},
    pages={ 850},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Lombardi, G., Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Davolio, S., & Mancini, M.. (2018). From deterministic to probabilistic forecasts: the ‘shift-target’ approach in the milan urban area (northern italy). Geosciences, 8(5), 181.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018d,
    ABSTRACT = {The number of natural catastrophes that affect people worldwide
    is increasing; among these, the hydro-meteorological events represent the
    worst scenario due to the thousands of deaths and huge damages to private
    and state ownership they can cause. To prevent this, besides various
    structural measures, many non-structural solutions, such as the implementation
    of flood warning systems, have been proposed in recent years.
    In this study, we suggest a low computational cost method to produce
    a probabilistic flood prediction system using a single forecast
    precipitation scenario perturbed via a spatial shift. In fact, it is well-known
    that accurate forecasts of heavy precipitation, especially associated with deep
    moist convection, are challenging due to uncertainties arising from the numerical
    weather prediction (NWP), and high sensitivity to misrepresentation of the initial
    atmospheric state. Inaccuracies in precipitation forecasts are partially due
    to spatial misplacing. To produce hydro-meteorological simulations and forecasts,
    we use a flood forecasting system which comprises the physically-based
    rainfall-runoff hydrological model FEST-WB developed by the Politecnico di Milano,
    and the MOLOCH meteorological model provided by the Institute of
    Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC). The areas of study are
    the hydrological basins of the rivers Seveso, Olona, and Lambro located in
    the northern part of Milan city (northern Italy) where this system works every
    day in real-time. In this paper, we show the performance of reforecasts carried
    out between the years 2012 and 2015: in particular, we explore the ‘Shift-Target’ (ST)
    approach in order to obtain 40 ensemble members, which we assume equally likely,
    derived from the available deterministic precipitation forecast. Performances are
    shown through statistical indexes based on exceeding the threshold for different
    gauge stations over the three hydrological basins. Results highlight how the Shift-Target
    approach complements the deterministic MOLOCH-based flood forecast for warning purposes},
    year={2018},
    issn={2076-3263},
    journal={Geosciences},
    volume={8},
    number={5},
    doi={10.3390/geosciences8050181},
    title={From deterministic to probabilistic forecasts: The ‘shift-target’ approach in the Milan urban area (Northern Italy)},
    url={http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/8/5/181},
    publisher={MDPI},
    keywords={ Floods; Hydrological simulations; Probabilistic forecasts; Shift-Target approach; Urban river basins},
    author={Lombardi, G. and Ceppi, A. and Ravazzani, G. and Davolio, S. and Mancini, M.},
    pages={ 181},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Feki, M., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., & Mancini, M.. (2018). Influence of soil hydraulic variability on soil moisture simulations and irrigation scheduling in a maize field. Agricultural water management, 202, 183-194.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018c,
    ABSTRACT = {Hydrological models play a crucial role for their ability to simulate
    water movement from soil surface to groundwater and to predict onset of stress
    conditions within agricultural fields. However, optimal use of mathematical
    models requires intensive, time consuming and expensive collection of soil
    related parameters. Typically soils to be characterized exhibit large variations
    in space and time as well during the cropping cycle, due to biological processes
    and agricultural management practices: tillage, irrigation, fertilization and harvest.
    This paper investigates the variability of soil hydraulic properties over a cropping
    cycle between April and September 2015, within a surface irrigated maize field (6 ha)
    located in northern Italy. To this aim, undisturbed and disturbed soil samples were
    collected from different locations within the study area and at different depths,
    during three measuring campaigns, at the beginning, in the middle of the cropping
    season and after the harvest. For each soil sample, several parameters were monitored:
    organic matter and bulk density together with soil hydraulic parameters.
    Soil parameters of Soil water retention curve parameters were measured following
    the evaporation method, while the saturated hydraulic conductivity was determined
    in the laboratory using the well-known falling head method. Results show that soil
    properties, mainly the saturated hydraulic conductivity, are subjected to
    significant variations. The variability of these parameters was taken into
    consideration when simulating soil moisture using FEST-WB model.
    An improvement in soil water content simulations was observed as compared
    to field measurements with implications on prediction of water stress
    conditions that is fundamental for irrigation scheduling},
    year={2018},
    issn={0378-3774},
    journal={Agricultural Water Management},
    volume={202},
    doi={10.1016/j.agwat.2018.02.024},
    title={Influence of soil hydraulic variability on soil moisture simulations and irrigation scheduling in a maize field},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377418301197},
    publisher={Elsevier B.V.},
    keywords={ Irrigation scheduling; Soil hydraulic properties; Soil temporal variability; Soil water content; Stress index},
    author={ Feki, M. and Ravazzani, G. and Ceppi, A. and Mancini, M.},
    pages={183-194},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Beretta, R., Ravazzani, G., Maiorano, C., & Mancini, M.. (2018). Simulating the influence of buildings on flood inundation in urban areas. Geosciences, 8(2), 77.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018b,
    ABSTRACT = {Two-dimensional hydraulic modeling is fundamental to simulate flood
    events in urban area. Key factors to reach optimal results are detailed information
    about domain geometry and utility of hydrodynamic models to integrate the full or
    simplified Saint Venant equations in complex geometry. However, in some cases,
    detailed topographic datasets that represent the domain geometry are not available,
    so approximations—such as diffusive wave equation—is introduced whilst representing
    urban area with an adjusted roughness coefficient. In the present paper, different
    methods to represent buildings and approximation of the Saint Venant equations are
    tested by performing experiments on a scale physical model of urban district in laboratory.
    Simplified methods are tested for simulation of a real flood event which occurred in 2013
    in the city of Olbia, Italy. Results show that accuracy of simulating flow depth with a
    detailed geometry is comparable to the one achieved with an adjusted roughness coefficient.},
    year={2018},
    issn={2076-3263},
    journal={Geosciences},
    volume={8},
    number={2},
    doi={10.3390/geosciences8020077},
    title={Simulating the Influence of Buildings on Flood Inundation in Urban Areas},
    url={http://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/8/2/77},
    publisher={MDPI},
    keywords={ urban topography; flood modeling; Saint Venant equations; laboratory experiment; buildings; roughness coefficient},
    author={ Beretta, Riccardo and Ravazzani, Giovanni and Maiorano, Carlo and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={ 77},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Tauro, F., Selker, J., van de Giesen, N., Abrate, T., Uijlenhoet, R., Porfiri, M., Manfreda, S., Caylor, K., Moramarco, T., Benveniste, J., Ciraolo, G., Estes, L., Domeneghetti, A., Perks, M. T., Corbari, C., Rabiei, E., Ravazzani, G., Bogena, H., Harfouche, A., Brocca, L., Maltese, A., Wickert, A., Tarpanelli, A., Good, S., Lopez Alcala, J. M., Petroselli, A., Cudennec, C., Blume, T., Hut, R., & Grimaldi, S.. (2018). Measurements and observations in the xxi century (moxxi): innovation and multi-disciplinarity to sense the hydrological cycle. Hydrological sciences journal, 63(2), 169-196.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2018a,
    ABSTRACT = {To promote the advancement of novel observation techniques that may lead to new sources of
    information to help better understand the hydrological cycle, the International Association of
    Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) established the Measurements and Observations in the XXI century (MOXXI)
    Working Group in July 2013. The group comprises a growing community of tech-enthusiastic hydrologists
    that design and develop their own sensing systems, adopt a multi-disciplinary perspective in tackling
    complex observations, often use low-cost equipment intended for other applications to build innovative
    sensors, or perform opportunistic measurements. This paper states the objectives of the group and
    reviews major advances carried out by MOXXI members toward the advancement of hydrological sciences.
    Challenges and opportunities are outlined to provide strategic guidance for advancement of measurement, and thus discovery.},
    year={2018},
    issn={2150-3435},
    journal={Hydrological Sciences Journal},
    volume={63},
    number={2},
    doi={10.1080/02626667.2017.1420191},
    title={Measurements and Observations in the XXI century (MOXXI): innovation and multi-disciplinarity to sense the hydrological cycle},
    url={https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02626667.2017.1420191},
    publisher={Taylor & Francis},
    keywords={ measurements and Observations in the XXI century (MOXXI); IAHS; innovation; experimental hydrology; hydrological measurements; sensors},
    author={ Tauro, Flavia and Selker, John and van de Giesen, Nick and Abrate, Tommaso and
    Uijlenhoet, Remko and Porfiri, Maurizio and Manfreda, Salvatore and Caylor, Kelly and
    Moramarco, Tommaso and Benveniste, Jerome and Ciraolo, Giuseppe and Estes, Lyndon and
    Domeneghetti, Alessio and Perks, Matthew T. and Corbari, Chiara and Rabiei, Ehsan and
    Ravazzani, Giovanni and Bogena, Heye and Harfouche, Antoine and Brocca, Luca and
    Maltese, Antonino and Wickert, Andy and Tarpanelli, Angelica and Good, Stephen and
    Lopez Alcala, Jose Manuel and Petroselli, Andrea and Cudennec, Christophe and Blume, Theresa and
    Hut, Rolf and Grimaldi, Salvatore},
    pages={ 169-196},
    language={English}
    }

2017

  • [DOI] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., Galvagno, M., Cremonese, E., & Mancini, M.. (2017). Assessing crop coefficients for natural vegetated areas using satellite data and eddy covariance stations. Sensors, 17(11), 2664.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2017d,
    ABSTRACT = {The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration
    assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration
    of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally
    developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration.
    Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these
    species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired
    by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated
    areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data. Pastures, deciduous and
    evergreen forests have been considered and lower crop coefficient values are found with respect to
    FAO data.},
    year={2017},
    issn={1424-8220},
    journal={sensors},
    volume={17},
    number={11},
    doi={10.3390/s17112664},
    title={Assessing Crop Coefficients for Natural Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Data and Eddy Covariance Stations},
    url={http://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/17/11/2664},
    publisher={MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)},
    keywords={ crop coefficient; natural vegetated area; satellite data; eddy covariance stations},
    author={Corbari, Chiara and Ravazzani, Giovanni and Galvagno, Marta and Cremonese, Edoardo and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={2664},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., Ceppi, A., Feki Mouna, Mancini, M., Ferrari, F., Gianfreda, R., Colombo, R., Ginocchi, M., Meucci, S., De Vecchi, D., Dell’Acqua, F., & Ober, G.. (2017). From (cyber)space to ground: new technologies for smart farming. Hydrology research, 48(3), 656-672.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2017c,
    ABSTRACT = {Increased water demand and climate change impacts have recently enhanced the need to improve
    water resources management, even in those areas which traditionally have an abundant supply of
    water, such as the Po Valley in northern Italy. The highest consumption of water is devoted to
    irrigation for agricultural production, and so it is in this area that efforts have to be focused to study
    possible interventions. Meeting and optimizing the consumption of water for irrigation also means
    making more resources available for drinking water and industrial use, and maintaining an optimal
    state of the environment. In this study we show the effectiveness of the combined use of numerical
    weather predictions and hydrological modelling to forecast soil moisture and crop water requirement
    in order to optimize irrigation scheduling. This system combines state of the art mathematical
    models and new technologies for environmental monitoring, merging ground observed data with
    Earth observations from space and unconventional information from the cyberspace through
    crowdsourcing.},
    year={2017},
    issn={2224-7955},
    journal={hydrology research},
    volume={48},
    number={3},
    doi={10.2166/nh.2016.112},
    title={From (cyber)space to ground: new technologies for smart farming},
    url={http://hr.iwaponline.com/content/early/2016/12/05/nh.2016.112},
    publisher={IWA Publishing},
    keywords={ crowdsourcing; hydrological model; irrigation management; satellite observations;
    soil moisture; weather forecast},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Corbari, Chiara and Ceppi, Alessandro and Feki, Mouna, and Mancini, Marco and Ferrari, Fabrizio and Gianfreda, Roberta and Colombo, Roberto and Ginocchi, Mirko and Meucci, Stefania and De Vecchi, Daniele and Dell'Acqua, Fabio and Ober, Giovanna},
    pages={656-672},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Amengual, A., Carrió, D. S., Ravazzani, G., & Homar, V.. (2017). A comparison of ensemble strategies for flash flood forecasting: the 12 october 2007 case study in valencia, spain. Journal of hydrometeorology, 18(4), 1143-1166.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2017b,
    ABSTRACT = {On 12 October 2007, several flash floods affected the
    Valencia region, eastern Spain, with devastating impacts in terms
    of human, social, and economic losses. An enhanced modeling
    and forecasting of these extremes, which can provide a tangible
    basis for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures
    over the Mediterranean, is one of the fundamental motivations of
    the international Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean
    Experiment (HyMeX) program. The predictability bounds set by
    multiple sources of hydrological and meteorological uncertainty
    require their explicit representation in hydrometeorological
    forecasting systems. By including local convective precipitation
    systems, short-range ensemble prediction systems (SREPSs) provide
    a state-of-the-art framework to generate quantitative discharge
    forecasts and to cope with different sources of external-scale
    (i.e., external to the hydrological system) uncertainties.
    The performance of three distinct hydrological ensemble
    prediction systems (HEPSs) for the small-sized Serpis River
    basin is examined as a support tool for early warning and
    mitigation strategies. To this end, the Flash-Flood Event–Based
    Spatially Distributed Rainfall–Runoff Transformation–Water Balance
    (FEST-WB) model is driven by ground stations to examine the
    hydrological response of this semiarid and karstic catchment
    to heavy rains. The use of a multisite and novel calibration
    approach for the FEST-WB parameters is necessary to cope with
    the high nonlinearities emerging from the rainfall–runoff
    transformation and heterogeneities in the basin response.
    After calibration, FEST-WB reproduces with remarkable accuracy
    the hydrological response to intense precipitation and,
    in particular, the 12 October 2007 flash flood.
    Next, the flood predictability challenge is focused on
    quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs).
    In this regard, three SREPS generation strategies using
    the WRF Model are analyzed. On the one side, two SREPSs
    accounting for 1) uncertainties in the initial conditions (ICs)
    and lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) and 2) physical parameterizations
    are evaluated. An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is also designed to
    test the ability of ensemble data assimilation methods to represent
    key mesoscale uncertainties from both IC and subscale processes.
    Results indicate that accounting for diversity in the physical
    parameterization schemes provides the best probabilistic high-resolution
    QPFs for this particular flash flood event. For low to moderate
    precipitation rates, EnKF and pure multiple physics approaches
    render undistinguishable accuracy for the test situation at larger scales.
    However, only the multiple physics QPFs properly drive the HEPS to render
    the most accurate flood warning signals. That is, extreme precipitation
    values produced by these convective-scale precipitation systems anchored
    by complex orography are better forecast when accounting just for
    uncertainties in the physical parameterizations. These findings contribute
    to the identification of ensemble strategies better targeted to the most
    relevant sources of uncertainty before flash flood situations over small catchments.},
    year={2017},
    issn={1525-755X},
    journal={Journal of Hydrometeorology},
    volume={18},
    number={4},
    doi={10.1175/JHM-D-16-0281.1},
    title={A Comparison of Ensemble Strategies for Flash Flood Forecasting: The 12 October 2007 Case Study in Valencia, Spain },
    url={http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/10.1175/JHM-D-16-0281.1},
    publisher={American Meteorological Society},
    keywords={ Ensembles; Mesoscale forecasting; Numerical weather prediction/forecasting; Short-range prediction; Hydrologic models; Mesoscale models},
    author={Amengual, Arnau and Carrió, Diego Saúl and Ravazzani, Giovanni and Homar, Victor},
    pages={1143-1166},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G.. (2017). Open hardware portable dual-probe heat-pulse sensor for measuring soil thermal properties and water content. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 133, 9-14.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2017a,
    ABSTRACT = {A portable probe based on open hardware architecture
    for the assessment of soil thermal properties and water content
    using the DPHP method is presented. The mean percentage errors
    for assessment of volumetric heat capacity and thermal conductivity
    were 4.6% and 8.9% respectively, computed after sensor spacing
    calibration in agar stabilized water.
    The DPHP probe has been tested for soil thermal properties
    assessment and compared to TDR probe for the water content
    estimation in four different soils. The DPHP probe showed an
    accuracy comparable to TDR in estimating water content,
    with DPHP showing lower values of error index in 3 samples
    out of 4. The DPHP can be used to investigate smaller volume
    of soil than TDR probe can do however, TDR is much faster
    than DPHP in measure acquisition.},
    year={2017},
    issn={0168-1699},
    journal={Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume={133},
    doi={10.1016/j.compag.2016.12.012},
    title={Open hardware portable dual-probe heat-pulse sensor for measuring soil thermal properties and water content},
    url={http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169916301922},
    publisher={ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS},
    keywords={ Dual-probe heat-pulse; Open hardware; Portable device; Soil thermal properties; Water content},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni},
    pages={9-14},
    language={English}
    }

2016

  • [PDF] Feki, M., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., & Mancini, M.. (2016). Analysis of different sources of variability of soil related parameters at field scale for hydrological simulation. Paper presented at the XXXV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bologna.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2016g,
    address = {Bologna},
    author = {Mouna Feki and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessandro Ceppi and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Analysis of different sources of variability of soil related parameters at field scale for hydrological simulation},
    booktitle = {{XXXV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {1401--1404},
    ISBN = {9788898010400}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G.. (2016). Development of an open hardware portable dual-probe heat-pulse sensor for measuring soil thermal properties and water content. Paper presented at the XXXV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bologna.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2016f,
    address = {Bologna},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani},
    title = {Development of an open hardware portable dual-probe heat-pulse sensor for measuring soil thermal properties and water content},
    booktitle = {{XXXV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {1413--1416},
    ISBN = {9788898010400}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Amengual, A., Lombardi, G., Homar, V., Romero, R., & Mancini, M.. (2016). Real time hydro-meteorological forecasts for early warning system in the milan urban area. Paper presented at the XXXV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bologna.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2016e,
    address = {Bologna},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Arnau Amengual and Gabriele Lombardi and Victor Homar and Romu Romero and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Real time hydro-meteorological forecasts for early warning system in the Milan urban area},
    booktitle = {{XXXV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2016},
    pages = {1123--1124},
    ISBN = {9788898010400}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Amengual, A., Ceppi, A., Homar, V., Romero, R., Lombardi, G., & Mancini, M.. (2016). Potentialities of ensemble strategies for flood forecasting over the Milano urban area. Journal of hydrology, 539, 237-253.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2016d,
    ABSTRACT = {Analysis of ensemble forecasting strategies, which can provide a
    tangible backing for flood early warning procedures and mitigation measures
    over the Mediterranean region, is one of the fundamental motivations of the
    international HyMeX programme. Here, we examine two severe hydrometeorological
    episodes that affected the Milano urban area and for which the complex flood
    protection system of the city did not completely succeed. Indeed, flood damage
    have exponentially increased during the last 60 years, due to industrial and
    urban developments. Thus, the improvement of the Milano flood control system
    needs a synergism between structural and non-structural approaches.
    First, we examine how land-use changes due to urban development have altered
    the hydrological response to intense rainfalls. Second, we test a flood
    forecasting system which comprises the Flash-flood Event-based Spatially
    distributed rainfall–runoff Transformation, including Water Balance (FEST-WB)
    and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models. Accurate forecasts of
    deep moist convection and extreme precipitation are difficult to be predicted
    due to uncertainties arising from the numeric weather prediction (NWP) physical
    parameterizations and high sensitivity to misrepresentation of the atmospheric state;
    however, two hydrological ensemble prediction systems (HEPS) have been designed to
    explicitly cope with uncertainties in the initial and lateral boundary conditions
    (IC/LBCs) and physical parameterizations of the NWP model. No substantial differences
    in skill have been found between both ensemble strategies when considering an
    enhanced diversity of IC/LBCs for the perturbed initial conditions ensemble.
    Furthermore, no additional benefits have been found by considering more frequent
    LBCs in a mixed physics ensemble, as ensemble spread seems to be reduced.
    These findings could help to design the most appropriate ensemble strategies
    before these hydrometeorological extremes, given the computational cost of
    running such advanced HEPSs for operational purposes.},
    year={2016},
    issn={0022-1694},
    journal={Journal of Hydrology},
    volume={539},
    doi={10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.023},
    title={Potentialities of ensemble strategies for flood forecasting over the {M}ilano urban area},
    url={http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416302906},
    publisher={ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, PO BOX 211, 1000 AE AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS},
    keywords={Flooding; Small urban river basins; Land-use change; Convective events; Ensemble prediction systems},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Amengual, Arnau and Ceppi, Alessandro and Homar, Victor and Romero, Romu and Lombardi, Gabriele and Mancini, Marco },
    pages={237-253},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Curti, D., Gattinoni, P., Della Valentina, S., Fiorucci, A., & Rosso, R.. (2016). Assessing groundwater contribution to streamflow of a large alpine river with heat tracer methods and hydrological modelling. River research and applications, 32(5), 871-884.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2016c,
    ABSTRACT = {The contribution of groundwater to streamflow in Alpine catchments
    is still poorly understood, despite the fact that it may heavily impact
    hydrological balance and stream habitats. This paper presents the results of
    a field campaign based on experiments with heat tracer methods to assess the
    hyporheic flow during the low-flow period of a large Alpine river in Italy.
    These measurements were employed to validate a distributed hydrological model
    that can be used to asses river–groundwater interaction in both low-flow
    and high-flow conditions. The results show that groundwater may have a
    relevant role during low-flow periods, by increasing river discharge and
    during floods, by subtracting direct run-off that is stored in river banks.},
    year={2016},
    issn={1535-1459},
    journal={River Research and Applications},
    volume={32},
    number={5},
    doi={10.1002/rra.2921},
    title={Assessing Groundwater Contribution to Streamflow of a Large Alpine River with Heat Tracer Methods and Hydrological Modelling},
    url={http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rra.2921/abstract},
    publisher={WILEY-BLACKWELL},
    keywords={alpine basin; Heat tracer; hyporheic flow; flow duration curve},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Curti, Diego and Gattinoni, Paola and Della Valentina, Simone and Fiorucci, Adriano and Rosso, Renzo},
    pages={871-884},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Dalla Valle, F., Gaudard, L., Mendlik, T., Gobiet, A., & Mancini, M.. (2016). Assessing climate impacts on hydropower production: the case of the toce river basin. Climate, 4(2), 16.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2016b,
    ABSTRACT = {The aim of the presented study is to assess the impacts of climate change on hydropower
    production of the Toce Alpine river basin in Italy. For the meteorological forcing of future scenarios,
    time series were generated by applying a quantile-based error-correction approach to downscale
    simulations from two regional climate models to point scale. Beside a general temperature increase,
    climate models simulate an increase of mean annual precipitation distributed over spring, autumn
    and winter, and a significant decrease in summer. A model of the hydropower system was driven by
    discharge time series for future scenarios, simulated with a spatially distributed hydrological model,
    with the simulation goal of defining the reservoirs management rule that maximizes the economic
    value of the hydropower production. The assessment of hydropower production for future climate
    till 2050 respect to current climate (2001–2010) showed an increase of production in autumn, winter
    and spring, and a reduction in June and July. Significant change in the reservoir management policy
    is expected due to anticipation of the date when the maximum volume of stored water has to be
    reached and an increase of the reservoir drawdown during August and September to prepare storage
    capacity for autumn inflows.},
    year={2016},
    issn={2225-1154},
    journal={Climate},
    volume={4},
    number={2},
    doi={10.3390/cli4020016},
    title={Assessing Climate Impacts on Hydropower Production: The Case of the Toce River Basin},
    url={http://www.mdpi.com/2225-1154/4/2/16},
    publisher={MDPI},
    keywords={alpine basin; climate change; hydrological impact; hydropower production},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Dalla Valle, Francesco and Gaudard, Ludovic and Mendlik, Thomas and Gobiet, Andreas and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={16},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Boscarello, L., Ravazzani, G., Cislaghi, A., & Mancini, M.. (2016). Regionalization of flow-duration curves through catchment classification with streamflow signatures and physiographic–climate indices. Journal of hydrologic engineering, 21(3), 5015027.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2016a,
    ABSTRACT = {This study addresses the estimation of flow-duration curves (FDC) in ungauged sites through the catchment classification.
    Forty-six catchments in the Upper Po river basin (Italy) were analyzed and classified through two different frameworks: the first scheme
    consists of the application of two clustering methods in a series considering six streamflow signatures, and the second one treats indexes of
    climate, physiography, soil, and land-use with the same clustering procedure. Catchments have been classified into three homogeneous
    groups: the first one is characterized by the lowest runoff and flash-flood events, the second one includes maximum runoff, and the third
    one shows intermediate behaviour. The estimation of FDCs was done using a lognormal distribution, whereas the regionalization was
    constructed applying a stepwise multiple linear regression, followed by a leave-one-out cross-validation. The results show great performance
    improvement when the regionalization model is found by taking account of the three different hydrological classes, with a mean absolute
    percentage error that decreases from 11% for the single region case to 7% in the three homogeneous regions case},
    year={2016},
    issn={1084-0699},
    journal={Journal of Hydrologic Engineering },
    volume={21},
    number={3},
    doi={10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0001307},
    title={Regionalization of Flow-Duration Curves through Catchment Classification with Streamflow Signatures and Physiographic–Climate Indices},
    url={http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29HE.1943-5584.0001307},
    publisher={ASCE American Society of Civil Engineering},
    keywords={Catchment classification; Flow-duration curve; Regionalization; Upper Po river basin},
    author={Boscarello, Laura and Ravazzani, Giovanni and Cislaghi, Alessio and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={05015027},
    language={English}
    }

2015

  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Dalla Valle, F., Mendlik, T., Galeati, G., Gobiet, A., & Mancini, M.. (2015). Assessing climate impacts on hydropower production of toce alpine basin. In Lollino, G., Manconi, A., Clague, J., Shan, W., & Chiarle, M. (Eds.), In Engineering geology for society and territory – volume 1 (pp. 9-12). Springer international publishing.
    [Bibtex]
    @incollection{ravazzani2015a,
    ABSTRACT = {The aim of the presented study is
    to assess the impacts of climate change
    on hydropower production of the Toce
    alpine river basin, in Italy. A model
    of the hydropower system was driven
    by discharge time series at hourly
    scale with the simulation goal of
    defining the reservoirs management
    rule that maximize the economic
    value of the hydropower production.
    To this purpose, current energy
    price was assumed for the future.
    Assessment of hydropower production
    of future climate (2041–2050) respect
    to current climate (2001–2010)
    showed an increment of production
    in Autumn, Winter and Spring,
    and a reduction in June and July.
    Significant change in the reservoirs
    management policy is expected due
    to anticipation of the date when
    the maximum volume of stored water
    has to be reached and an increase
    of reservoir drawdown during August
    and September to prepare storage
    capacity for autumn inflows.},
    year={2015},
    isbn={978-3-319-09299-7},
    booktitle={Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 1},
    editor={Lollino, Giorgio and Manconi, Andrea and Clague, John and Shan, Wei and Chiarle, Marta},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-319-09300-0_2},
    title={Assessing Climate Impacts on Hydropower Production of Toce Alpine Basin},
    url={http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09300-0_2},
    publisher={Springer International Publishing},
    keywords={Alpine basin; Climate change; Hydrological impact; Hydropower production},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Dalla Valle, Francesco and Mendlik, Thomas and Galeati, Giorgio and Gobiet, Andreas and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={9-12},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Barbero, S., Salandin, A., Senatore, A., & Mancini, M.. (2015). An integrated hydrological model for assessing climate change impacts on water resources of the upper po river basin. Water resources management, 29(4), 1193-1215.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2015b,
    ABSTRACT = {Climate change can have profound impacts on water availability.
    In order to assess the impacts on water resources in complex
    Alpine river basins, an integrated model that can simulate mutual
    interactions between natural hydrological processes and
    anthropogenic disturbances is required. The objective of this
    study is to show the potential of such an integrated approach
    in quantifying the impacts of climate change on water
    resources availability in the Upper Po river basin in Italy.
    Results show that in the time slice 2041–2050 summer river
    discharge is expected to decrease with respect to 2001–2010,
    due to a substantial decrease of seasonal precipitation and
    an accelerated snow melt that causes an earlier snow depletion.
    Glaciers volume is expected to decrease to half the current
    value in 2025, while the minimum elevation of the lowest point
    of the glaciers is expected to increase from 1890 m asl to
    about 2850 m asl. It is shown that this change can affect
    regulation of large artificial reservoirs at higher
    elevation that are mainly dependent on glacier melt
    for their supply. Increase of annual precipitation is
    expected to increase groundwater detention that can be
    used as supplement to diminished river discharge during summer.},
    year={2015},
    issn={0920-4741},
    journal={Water Resources Management},
    volume={29},
    number={4},
    doi={10.1007/s11269-014-0868-8},
    title={An integrated Hydrological Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources of the Upper Po River Basin},
    url={http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-014-0868-8},
    publisher={Springer Netherlands},
    keywords={Climate change; Hydrological impact; Integrated model},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Barbero, Secondo and Salandin, Alessio and Senatore, Alfonso and Mancini, Marco},
    pages={1193-1215},
    language={English}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Bocchiola, D., Groppelli, B., Soncini, A., Rulli, M. C., Colombo, F., Mancini, M., & Rosso, R.. (2015). Continuous streamflow simulation for index flood estimation in an Alpine basin of northern Italy. Hydrological sciences journal, 60(6), 1013-1025.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ravazzani2015c,
    ABSTRACT = {Flood frequency estimation is crucial in both engineering practice and hydrological research. Regional
    analysis of flood peak discharges is used for more accurate estimates of flood quantiles in ungauged or poorly
    gauged catchments. This is based on the identification of homogeneous zones, where the probability distribution
    of annual maximum peak flows is invariant, except for a scale factor represented by an index flood. The
    numerous applications of this method have highlighted obtaining accurate estimates of index flood as a critical
    step, especially in ungauged or poorly gauged sections, where direct estimation by sample mean of annual flood
    series ({AFS}) is not possible, or inaccurate. Therein indirect methods have to be used. Most indirect methods are
    based upon empirical relationships that link index flood to hydrological, climatological and morphological
    catchment characteristics, developed by means of multi-regression analysis, or simplified lumped representation
    of rainfall–runoff processes. The limits of these approaches are increasingly evident as the size and spatial
    variability of the catchment increases. In these cases, the use of a spatially-distributed, physically-based hydrological
    model, and time continuous simulation of discharge can improve estimation of the index flood. This work
    presents an application of the FEST-WB model for the reconstruction of 29 years of hourly streamflows for an
    Alpine snow-fed catchment in northern Italy, to be used for index flood estimation. To extend the length of the
    simulated discharge time series, meteorological forcings given by daily precipitation and temperature at ground
    automatic weather stations are disaggregated hourly, and then fed to {FEST-WB}. The accuracy of the method in
    estimating index flood depending upon length of the simulated series is discussed, and suggestions for use of the
    methodology provided.},
    year={2015},
    issn={2150-3435},
    journal={Hydrological Sciences Journal},
    volume={60},
    number={6},
    doi={10.1080/02626667.2014.916405},
    title={Continuous streamflow simulation for index flood estimation in an {A}lpine basin of northern {I}taly},
    url={http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.916405},
    publisher={Taylor & Francis},
    keywords={index flood; continuous streamflow simulation; Alpine catchments; distributed hydrological model; missing data
    infilling},
    author={Ravazzani, Giovanni and Bocchiola, Daniele and Groppelli, Bibiana and Soncini, Andrea and Rulli,
    Maria Cristina and Colombo, Fabio and Mancini, Marco and Rosso, Renzo},
    pages={1013-1025},
    language={English}
    }

2014

  • [DOI] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., Salerno, R., Meucci, S., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation management. Hydrology and earth system sciences, 18(9), 3353–3366.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ceppi2014a,
    ABSTRACT = {In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity
    have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even
    in European areas which traditionally have an abundant supply
    of water, such as the Po Valley in northern Italy. In dry
    periods, water shortage problems can be enhanced by conflicting
    uses of water, such as irrigation, industry and power
    production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Furthermore,
    in the last decade the social perspective in relation to this issue
    has been increasing due to the possible impact of climate
    change and global warming scenarios which emerge from the
    IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2013). Hence, the increased
    frequency of drought periods has stimulated the improvement
    of irrigation and water management.
    In this study we show the development and implementation
    of the PREGI real-time drought forecasting system;
    PREGI is an Italian acronym that means “hydrometeorological
    forecast for irrigation management”. The system,
    planned as a tool for irrigation optimization, is based on
    meteorological ensemble forecasts (20 members) at medium
    range (30 days) coupled with hydrological simulations of water
    balance to forecast the soil water content on a maize field
    in the Muzza Bassa Lodigiana (MBL) consortium in northern
    Italy. The hydrological model was validated against measurements
    of latent heat flux acquired by an eddy-covariance
    station, and soil moisture measured by TDR (time domain
    reflectivity) probes; the reliability of this forecasting system
    and its benefits were assessed in the 2012 growing season.
    The results obtained show how the proposed drought forecasting
    system is able to have a high reliability of forecast at
    least for 7–10 days ahead of time.},
    AUTHOR = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and
    Chiara Corbari and Raffaele Salerno and
    Stefania Meucci and Marco Mancini},
    TITLE = {Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation management},
    JOURNAL = {Hydrology and Earth System Sciences},
    VOLUME = {18},
    YEAR = {2014},
    NUMBER = {9},
    PAGES = {3353--3366},
    URL = {http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/18/3353/2014/},
    DOI = {10.5194/hess-18-3353-2014}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Ghilardi, M., Mendlik, T., Gobiet, A., Corbari, C., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Investigation of climate change impact on water resources for an alpine basin in northern Italy: implications for evapotranspiration modeling complexity. Plos one, 9(10), e109053.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ravazzani2014a,
    ABSTRACT = {Assessing the future effects of climate change on
    water availability requires an understanding of how precipitation and
    evapotranspiration rates will respond to changes in atmospheric forcing.
    Use of simplified hydrological models is required
    beacause of lack of meteorological forcings with the high space and time
    resolutions required to model hydrological
    processes in mountains river basins, and the necessity of reducing
    the computational costs. The main objective of this study
    was to quantify the differences between a simplified hydrological model,
    which uses only precipitation and temperature to
    compute the hydrological balance when simulating the impact of
    climate change, and an enhanced version of the model,
    which solves the energy balance to compute the actual
    evapotranspiration. For the meteorological forcing of future
    scenario, at-site bias-corrected time series based on two
    regional climate models were used. A quantile-based error correction
    approach was used to downscale the regional climate model
    simulations to a point scale and to reduce its error
    characteristics. The study shows that a simple
    temperature-based approach for computing the evapotranspiration is
    sufficiently accurate for performing hydrological impact
    investigations of climate change for the Alpine river basin which
    was studied.},
    AUTHOR = {Ravazzani, G. and Ghilardi, M. and Mendlik, T. and Gobiet, A. and Corbari, C. and Mancini, M.},
    TITLE = {Investigation of climate change impact on water resources for an Alpine basin in northern {I}taly:
    implications for evapotranspiration modeling complexity},
    JOURNAL = {Plos One},
    VOLUME = {9},
    YEAR = {2014},
    NUMBER = {10},
    PAGES = {e109053},
    URL = {http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109053},
    DOI = {10.1371/journal.pone.0109053}
    }
  • [DOI] Dedieu, J. P., Lessard-Fontaine, A., Ravazzani, G., Cremonese, E., Shalpykova, G., & Beniston, M.. (2014). Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote sensing retrieval. Science of the total environment, 493, 1267–1279.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Dedieu2014,
    ABSTRACT = {Observed climate change has already led to a wide range of impacts on environmental systems and society. In this
    context, many mountain regions seem to be particularly sensitive to a changing climate, through increases in
    temperature coupled with changes in precipitation regimes that are often larger than the global average (EEA,
    2012). In mid-latitude mountains, these driving factors strongly influence the variability of the mountain
    snow-pack, through a decrease in seasonal reserves and earlier melting of the snow pack. These in turn impact
    on hydrological systems in different watersheds and, ultimately, have consequences for water management.
    Snow monitoring from remote sensing provides a unique opportunity to address the question of snow cover
    regime changes at the regional scale. This study outlines the results retrieved from the MODIS satellite images
    over a time period of 10 hydrological years (2000–2010) and applied to two case studies of the EU FP7
    ACQWA project, namely the upper Rhone and Po in Europe and the headwaters of the Syr Darya in Kyrgyzstan
    (Central Asia). The satellite data were provided by the MODIS Terra MOD-09 reflectance images (NASA) and
    MOD-10 snow products (NSIDC). Daily snow maps were retrieved over that decade and the results presented
    here focus on the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover. This paper highlights the statistical bias observed
    in some specific regions, expressed by the standard deviation values (STD) of annual snow duration. This bias is
    linked to the response of snow cover to changes in elevation and can be used as a signal of strong instability in
    regions sensitive to climate change: with alternations of heavy snowfalls and rapid snow melting processes.
    The interest of the study is to compare the methodology between the medium scales (Europe) and the large
    scales (Central Asia) in order to overcome the limits of the applied methodologies and to improve their performances.
    Results show that the yearly snow cover duration increases by 4–5 days per 100 m elevation during
    the accumulation period, depending of the watershed, while during the melting season the snow depletion
    rate is 0.3% per day of surface loss for the upper Rhone catchment, 0.4%/day for the Syr Darya headwater basins,
    and 0.6%/day for the upper Po, respectively. Then, the annual STD maps of snow cover indicate higher values
    (more than 45 days difference compared to the mean values) for (i) the Po foothill region at medium elevation
    (SE orientation) and (ii) the Kyrgyzstan high plateaux (permafrost areas). These observations cover only a timeperiod
    of 10 years, but exhibit a signal under current climate that is already consistentwith the expected decline
    in snow in these regions in the course of the 21st century.},
    AUTHOR = {Dedieu, J.P. and Lessard-Fontaine, A. and Ravazzani, G. and Cremonese, E.
    and Shalpykova, G. and Beniston, M.},
    DOI = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.04.078},
    JOURNAL = {Science Of The Total Environment},
    PAGES = {1267--1279},
    TITLE = {Shifting mountain snow patterns in a changing climate from remote
    sensing retrieval},
    VOLUME = {493},
    YEAR = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Gianoli, P., Meucci, S., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Assessing downstream impacts of detention basins in urbanized river basins using a distributed hydrological model. Water resources management, 28, 1033–1044.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ravazzani2014b,
    ABSTRACT = {It is widely recognized that urban development alters infiltration capacity and
    enhances its spatial variability, but also constrains watercourses into narrow channels making
    them unable to contain the runoff that is generated by relatively small, but intense, rainfall
    events. Network of detention basins are designed to reduce the flood peak by temporarily
    storing the excess storm water and then releasing the water volume at allowable rates over an
    extended period. This paper shows the use of a distributed hydrological model for the
    assessment of effectiveness of a network of detention facilities in a heavily urbanized river
    basin. The distributed hydrological model FEST was used to assess design hydrograph and, in
    parallel to design the seven detention basins optimized for the specific purpose of maintaining
    the flow rate within the range of the maximum allowable discharge. This permitted to estimate
    the design hydrograph considering both the spatial variability of soil infiltration capacity and
    routing characteristics induced by each detention basins along the main river. Results indicate
    that on-stream detention ponds can increase duration of the critical event and runoff volume of
    design flood with possible negative implications on downstream facilities.},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Paride Gianoli and Stefania Meucci and
    Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1007/s11269-014-0532-3},
    journal = {WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT},
    pages = {1033--1044},
    title = {Assessing downstream impacts of detention basins in urbanized river
    basins using a distributed hydrological model},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] Gaudard, L., Romerio, F., Valle, D. F., Gorret, R., Maran, S., Ravazzani, G., Stoffel, M., & Volonterio, M.. (2014). Climate change impacts on hydropower in the Swiss and Italian Alps. Science of the total environment, 493, 1211–1221.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Gaudard2014,
    ABSTRACT = {This paper provides a synthesis and comparison of methodologies and results obtained in several studies devoted
    to the impact of climate change on hydropower. By putting into perspective various case studies, we provide a
    broader context and improved understanding of climate changes on energy production. We also underline the
    strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used as far as technical, physical and economical aspects are concerned.
    Although the catchments under investigation are located close to each other in geographic terms
    (Swiss and Italian Alps), they represent awide variety of situationswhich may be affected by differing evolutions
    for instance in terms of annual runoff. In this study, we also differentiate between run-of-river, storage and
    pumping-storage power plants. By integrating and comparing various analyses carried out in the framework of
    the EU-FP7 ACQWA project, this paper discusses the complexity aswell as current and future issues of hydropower
    management in the entire Alpine region.},
    author = {L. Gaudard and F. Romerio and F. Dalla Valle and R. Gorret and
    S. Maran and G. Ravazzani and M. Stoffel and M. Volonterio},
    doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.10.012},
    journal = {SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT},
    pages = {1211--1221},
    title = {Climate change impacts on hydropower in the {S}wiss and {I}talian {A}lps},
    volume = {493},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [DOI] Boscarello, L., Ravazzani, G., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Integrating glaciers raster-based modelling in large catchments hydrological balance: the Rhone case study. Hydrological processes, 28, 496–508.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Boscarello2014a,
    ABSTRACT = {A raster-based glacier sub-model was successfully introduced in the distributed hydrological model FEST-WB to simulate the
    water balance and surface runoff of large Alpine catchments. The glacier model is based on temperature-index approach for melt,
    on linear reservoir for melt water propagation into the ice and on mass balance for accumulation; the initialization of the volume
    of ice on the basin was based on a formulation depending on surface topography. The model was first tested on a sub-basin of the
    Rhone basin (Switzerland), which is for 62% glaciated; the calibration and validation were based on comparison between
    simulated and observed discharge from 1999 to 2008. The model proved to be suitable to simulate the typical discharge
    seasonality of a heavily glaciated basin. The performance of the model was also tested by simulating discharge in the whole
    Swiss Rhone basin, in which glaciers contribution is not negligible, in fact, in summer, about the 40% of the discharge is due to
    glacier melt. The model allowed to take into account the volume of water coming from glaciers melt and its simple structure is
    suitable for analysis of the effects of climate change on hydrological regime of high mountain basins, with available
    meteorological forcing from current RCM.},
    author = {Laura Boscarello and Giovanni Ravazzani and Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1002/hyp.9588},
    journal = {HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES},
    pages = {496--508},
    title = {Integrating glaciers raster-based modelling in large catchments hydrological
    balance: The {R}hone case study},
    volume = {28},
    year = {2014}
    }
  • [PDF] Boscarello, L., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2014). La classificazione dei bacini per la regionalizzazione delle curve di durata della portata. Paper presented at the XXXIV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bari.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{Boscarello2014b,
    address = {Bari},
    author = {Laura Boscarello and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    title = {La classificazione dei bacini per la regionalizzazione
    delle curve di durata della portata},
    booktitle = {{XXXIV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {165--166},
    ISBN = {978-88-904561-8-3}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., Meucci, S., Salerno, R., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Modellistica idro-meteorologica per la previsione in tempo reale della gestione irrigua. Paper presented at the XXXIV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bari.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{Ceppi2014b,
    address = {Bari},
    author = {Ceppi, A. and Ravazzani, G. and Corbari, C.
    and Meucci, S. and Salerno, R. and Mancini, M.},
    title = {Modellistica idro-meteorologica per la
    previsione in tempo reale della gestione irrigua},
    booktitle = {{XXXIV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {175--176},
    ISBN = {978-88-904561-8-3}
    }
  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Gianoli, P., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., Curti, D., Corbari, C., Zasso, A., Ciraolo, G., & Meucci, S.. (2014). Misure ad alta frequenza a supporto della modellazione fisica delle opere di scarico della diga di laminazione di pratolungo. Paper presented at the XXXIV convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Bari.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{Mancini2014,
    address = {Bari},
    author = {Mancini, M. and Gianoli, P. and Ravazzani, G. and
    Ceppi, A. and Curti, D. and Corbari, C. and Zasso, A. and Ciraolo, G. and Meucci, S.},
    title = {Misure ad alta frequenza a supporto della modellazione fisica delle opere di scarico
    della diga di laminazione di Pratolungo},
    booktitle = {{XXXIV} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {499--500},
    ISBN = {978-88-904561-8-3}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Salandin, A., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts in the upper po river basin. Paper presented at the Convegni lincei 279, Roma.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{Ceppi2014c,
    address = {Roma},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessio Salandin
    and Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts in the Upper Po river basin},
    booktitle = {{C}onvegni Lincei 279},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {193--198},
    ISBN = {978-88-218-1087-9}
    }
  • [PDF] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Validation of a distributed hydrological energy water balance model using remote sensing land surface temperature and ground discharge measurements. Paper presented at the Atti dei convegni lincei 279, Roma.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{corbari2014,
    address = {Roma},
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Validation of a distributed hydrological energy water balance model
    using remote sensing land surface temperature and ground discharge measurements},
    booktitle = {Atti dei convegni Lincei 279},
    year = {2014},
    pages = {271--277},
    ISBN = {978-88-218-1087-9}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Gianoli, P., Meucci, S., & Mancini, M.. (2014). Indirect estimation of design flood in urbanized river basins using a distributed hydrological model. Journal of hydrologic engineering, 19(1), 235–242.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ravazzani2014c,
    ABSTRACT = {A method for indirect estimation of design flood in poorly gauged urbanized river basins by using distributed hydrological
    modelling is presented. It is based on the critical flood design criterion that maximizes peak flow for a given return period by transforming
    precipitation of depth duration frequency curve into runoff. The indirect method is compared against the direct method based on regional
    approach and index flood estimation. This paper shows that the direct method significantly underestimates design flood in case discharge
    measurements are strongly affected by artificial alteration of water courses with possible catastrophic consequences in terms of loss of life and
    damage to property when the cause of alteration would be removed. Moreover, the use of a spatially distributed model allows taking into
    account the heterogeneity that generally characterizes river basins with an high degree of urbanization. The presented indirect method provides
    a design hydrograph that is useful for those cases in which design discharge only is not sufficient for designing or planning purposes.},
    author = {Ravazzani, G. and Gianoli, P. and Meucci, S. and Mancini, M.},
    doi = {10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000764},
    journal = {Journal of Hydrologic Engineering},
    pages = {235--242},
    title = {Indirect estimation of design flood in urbanized river basins
    using a distributed hydrological model},
    volume = {19},
    number = {1},
    year = {2014}
    }

2013

  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G.. (2013). Mosaico, a library for raster based hydrological applications. Computers & geosciences, 51, 1–6.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ravazzani2013,
    ABSTRACT = {This paper presents MOSAICO, a set of Fortran 90 Modules for facilitating development of raster based
    hydrological applications and stimulating adoption of netCDF as a common format for sharing and
    comparing data among hydrological community. MOSAICO include routines for high level operations
    for input output and manipulation of gridded dataset. A test program is presented in order to show
    basic MOSAICO capabilities.},
    author = {Ravazzani, G.},
    doi = {10.1016/j.cageo.2012.08.007},
    journal = {COMPUTERS \& GEOSCIENCES},
    pages = {1--6},
    title = {MOSAICO, a library for raster based hydrological applications},
    volume = {51},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • [DOI] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Salandin, A., Rabuffetti, D., Montani, A., Borgonovo, E., & Mancini, M.. (2013). Effects of temperature on flood forecasting: analysis of an operative case study in Alpine basins. Natural hazards and earth system sciences, 13, 1051–1062.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ceppi2013a,
    ABSTRACT = {In recent years the interest in the forecast and prevention
    of natural hazards related to hydro-meteorological
    events has increased the challenge for numerical weather
    modelling, in particular for limited area models, to improve
    the quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) for hydrological
    purposes.
    After the encouraging results obtained in the MAP DPHASE
    Project, we decided to devote further analyses to
    show recent improvements in the operational use of hydrometeorological
    chains, and above all to better investigate the
    key role played by temperature during snowy precipitation.
    In this study we present a reanalysis simulation of one meteorological
    event, which occurred in November 2008 in the
    Piedmont Region. The attention is focused on the key role
    of air temperature, which is a crucial feature in determining
    the partitioning of precipitation in solid and liquid phase, influencing
    the quantitative discharge forecast (QDF) into the
    Alpine region. This is linked to the basin ipsographic curve
    and therefore by the total contributing area related to the
    snow line of the event.
    In order to assess hydrological predictions affected by meteorological
    forcing, a sensitivity analysis of the model output
    was carried out to evaluate different simulation scenarios,
    considering the forecast effects which can radically modify
    the discharge forecast.
    Results show how in real-time systems hydrological forecasters
    have to consider also the temperature uncertainty in
    forecasts in order to better understand the snow dynamics
    and its effect on runoff during a meteorological warning with
    a crucial snow line over the basin.
    The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on
    the 16 members of the meteorological ensemble system
    COSMO-LEPS (developed by ARPA-SIMC) based on the
    non-hydrostatic model COSMO, while the hydrological
    model used to generate the runoff simulations is the rainfall–
    runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico
    di Milano.},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessio Salandin and Davide Rabuffetti and
    Andrea Montani and Emanuele Borgonovo and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.5194/nhess-13-1051-2013},
    journal = {NATURAL HAZARDS AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES},
    pages = {1051--1062},
    title = {Effects of temperature on flood forecasting: analysis of an operative
    case study in {A}lpine basins},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2013}
    }
  • [DOI] Boscarello, L., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2013). Catchment multisite discharge measurements for hydrological model calibration. Procedia environmental sciences, 19, 158–167.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Boscarello2013,
    ABSTRACT = {This work has the objective to find and test methodologies for distributed hydrological model calibration starting
    from discharge measurements. As all distributed models, also FEST-WB demands a large amount of information and
    parameters. To reduce the calibration effort, in this study we assign a first initial distribution of values for each
    parameter starting from information about soil type and usage and we let calibration change only the mean value,
    through a correction factor. The study area in which this methodology has been applied is Piemonte, with a total of 50
    flow measurements series. With this large amount of discharge data it is possible to test a multi-site calibration
    approach. The results show that the use of only one measure for calibration highlight some shortcomings in the
    validation results, while the use of all the measures together improve model performance in all catchments levels.},
    title = "Catchment Multisite Discharge Measurements for Hydrological Model Calibration ",
    journal = "Procedia Environmental Sciences ",
    volume = "19",
    number = "0",
    pages = "158--167",
    year = "2013",
    note = "Four Decades of Progress in Monitoring and Modeling of Processes in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System: Applications and Challenges ",
    issn = "1878-0296",
    doi = "10.1016/j.proenv.2013.06.018",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029613002880",
    author = "Laura Boscarello and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini"
    }
  • [DOI] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., & Mancini, M.. (2013). Multi-pixel calibration of a distributed energy water balance model using satellite data of land surface temperature and eddy covariance data. Procedia environmental sciences, 19, 285–292.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Corbari2013,
    title = "Multi-pixel Calibration of a Distributed Energy Water Balance Model Using Satellite Data of Land Surface Temperature and Eddy Covariance Data ",
    journal = "Procedia Environmental Sciences ",
    volume = "19",
    number = "0",
    pages = "285--292",
    year = "2013",
    note = "Four Decades of Progress in Monitoring and Modeling of Processes in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System: Applications and Challenges ",
    issn = "1878-0296",
    doi = "10.1016/j.proenv.2013.06.033",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029613003034",
    author = "C. Corbari and G. Ravazzani and A. Ceppi and M. Mancini"
    }
  • [DOI] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., Meucci, S., Pala, F., Salerno, R., Meazza, G., Chiesa, M., & Mancini, M.. (2013). Real time drought forecasting system for irrigation management. Procedia environmental sciences, 19, 776-784.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{Ceppi2013b,
    ABSTRACT = {In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in
    European areas traditionally rich of water such as the Po Valley in northern Italy. In dry periods the problem of water
    shortage can be enhanced by conflictual use of water such as irrigation, industrial and power production
    (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Further, over the last decade the social perspective on this issue is increasing due
    to possible impacts of climate change and global warming scenarios which come out from the last IPCC Report. The
    increased frequency of drought periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management.
    In this study we show the development and implementation of the real-time drought forecasting system Pre.G.I., an
    Italian acronym that stands for “Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management”.
    The system is based on ensemble prediction at long range (30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to
    forecast the soil water content in field parcels over the Consorzio Muzza basin. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in
    the middle of the Po Valley, near the city of Lodi.
    The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of the non-hydrostatic WRF-ARW
    model with 30 days as lead-time, provided by Epson Meteo Centre, while the hydrological model used to generate
    soil moisture simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano.
    The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an
    eddy-covariance statio*n. Reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits was assessed on some cases-study
    occurred in the growing season of 2012.},
    title = "Real Time Drought Forecasting System for Irrigation Management ",
    journal = "Procedia Environmental Sciences ",
    volume = "19",
    number = "0",
    pages = "776 - 784",
    year = "2013",
    note = "Four Decades of Progress in Monitoring and Modeling of Processes in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System: Applications and Challenges ",
    issn = "1878-0296",
    doi = "10.1016/j.proenv.2013.06.086",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029613003563",
    author = "A. Ceppi and G. Ravazzani and C. Corbari and S. Meucci and F. Pala and R. Salerno and G. Meazza and M. Chiesa and M. Mancini"
    }

2012

  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., Morella, S., Gianoli, P., & Mancini, M.. (2012). Modified Hargreaves-Samani equation for the assessment of reference evapotranspiration in Alpine river basins. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, 138(7), 592–599.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ravazzani2012a,
    ABSTRACT = {Deriving accurate estimates of reference evapotranspiration is required for water resource management, irrigation water requirement
    computations, and successful hydrological modeling. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) recommended
    the Penman-Monteith equation as the standard for estimating reference evapotranspiration. An alternative method for application at
    sites where only air temperature measurements are available is the Hargreaves-Samani equation. The primary objective of this study is to
    investigate the possibility for application of the Hargreaves-Samani equation in alpine areas for computing daily reference evapotranspiration.
    An evaluation of the Hargreaves-Samani equation and its modifications proposed in literature is made by comparing daily estimates with
    Penman-Monteith results at 51 meteorological stations in the Upper Po River Basin (Italy) and the Rhone River Basin (Switzerland). Significant
    error was encountered in all methods using the Hargreaves-Samani equation. A relationship for adjusting the Hargreaves-Samani
    coefficient on the basis of local elevation is proposed, calibrated, and validated. The resulting modified Hargreaves-Samani equation showed a
    significant reduction of error for estimating daily reference evapotranspiration. The proposed equation is not intended for replacement of the
    Penman-Monteith method but for application in alpine rivers when only air temperature data are available.},
    title = "Modified {H}argreaves-{S}amani equation for the assessment of reference evapotranspiration in {A}lpine river basins",
    journal = "Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering",
    volume = "138",
    number = "7",
    pages = "592--599",
    year = "2012",
    issn = "0733-9437",
    doi = "10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000453",
    url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000453",
    author = "Giovanni Ravazzani and Chiara Corbari and Stefano Morella and Paride Gianoli and Marco Mancini"
    }
  • [PDF] [DOI] Masseroni, D., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., & Mancini, M.. (2012). Turbulence integral length and footprint dimension with reference to experimental data measured over maize cultivation in Po Valley. Atmosfera, 25(2), 183–198.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{masseroni2012a,
    ABSTRACT = {The atmospheric turbulence in the planetary boundary layer (PBL)
    governs the mass and energy exchange over the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system.
    Micrometeorological stations based on the eddy-covariance technique have been
    recently developed for the assessment of latent and sensible heat fluxes through
    high frequency measurements of the fluctuating component of wind velocity,
    temperature and air water content in the PBL. Correct interpretation of such
    measurements requires assessment of the actual source area (footprint)
    contributing to the eddy fluxes (latent and sensible heat). Many different
    approaches have been developed to estimate the source area function but there
    is no general consensus on the accuracy and applicability of these methods.
    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the existence of a relationship
    between the representative source area for eddy covariance measurements,
    and the large eddies responsible for the transport of turbulent
    kinetic energy (TKE). Moreover, the energy balance closure was used
    to analyze the possible effects of the different lengths of the source
    area on the heat fluxes. A series of measurements were carried out in a
    micrometeorological eddy covariance station located in a maize field in
    Landriano in Po Valley (PV), Italy. The results show that the dimension
    of the large eddies is tightly bound to the footprint size, leading},
    title = "Turbulence integral length and footprint dimension with reference
    to experimental data measured over maize cultivation in {P}o {V}alley",
    journal = {Atmosfera},
    volume = "25",
    number = "2",
    pages = "183--198",
    year = "2012",
    issn = "0187-6236",
    doi = "10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000453",
    url = "http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0187-62362012000200005&nrm=iso",
    author = "Daniele Masseroni and Giovanni Ravazzani and Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini"
    }
  • [PDF] Masseroni, D., Corbari, C., Ercolani, G., Capelli, P., Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Milleo, G., & Mancini, M.. (2012). Comparison between two theoretical footprint models and experimental measurements of turbulent fluxes: the case of Landriano (PV). Paper presented at the XXXIII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Brescia.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{masseroni2012b,
    address = {Brescia},
    author = {Daniele Masseroni and Chiara Corbari and Giulia Ercolani and
    Paolo Capelli and Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and
    Giuseppe Milleo and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Comparison between two theoretical footprint models and experimental measurements of turbulent fluxes: the case of {L}andriano ({PV})},
    booktitle = {{XXXIII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {1--9}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., Gianoli, P., Meucci, S., & Ghilardi, M.. (2012). Assessing design flood in urban area using a distributed hydrological model. Paper presented at the XXXIII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Brescia.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2012b,
    address = {Brescia},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and Paride Gianoli and Stefania Meucci and Matteo Ghilardi},
    title = {Assessing design flood in urban area using a distributed hydrological model},
    booktitle = {{XXXIII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2012},
    pages = {1--9}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2012). An operational hydro-meteorological chain to evaluate the uncertainty in runoff forecasting over the Verbano basin. Journal of environmental science and engineering, 1, 379–396.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ceppi2012a,
    title = "An operational hydro-meteorological chain to evaluate the uncertainty
    in runoff forecasting over the {V}erbano basin",
    journal = {Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering},
    volume = "1",
    pages = "379--396",
    year = "2012",
    issn = "1934-8932",
    author = "Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini"
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Salandin, A., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2012). Assessing uncertainty of real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts based on ensemble prediction system. Paper presented at the From prediction to prevention of hydrological risk in mediterranean countries, Cosenza.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ceppi2012b,
    address = {Cosenza},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessio Salandin and
    Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini},
    booktitle = {From prediction to prevention of hydrological risk in mediterranean
    countries},
    editor = {Ennio Ferrari, Pasquale Versace},
    pages = {191--204},
    place = {Cosenza},
    publisher = {EdiBios},
    title = {Assessing uncertainty of real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts
    based on ensemble prediction system},
    year = {2012}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Salandin, A., Rabuffetti, D., Montani, A., Borgonovo, E., & Mancini, M.. (2012). Effects of hydro-meteorological sources of uncertainties on discharge forecasts. Paper presented at the XXXIII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Brescia.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ceppi2012c,
    address = {Brescia},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessio Salandin and Davide Rabuffetti and
    Andrea Montani and Emanuele Borgonovo and Marco Mancini},
    booktitle = {{XXXIII} Convegno Nazionale di Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    month = {September},
    pages = {1--11},
    title = {Effects of hydro-meteorological sources of uncertainties on discharge
    forecasts},
    year = {2012}
    }

2011

  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Rametta, D., & Mancini, M.. (2011). Macroscopic cellular automata for groundwater modelling: a first approach. Environmental modelling & software, 26(5), 634–643.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ravazzani2011a,
    abstract = {A groundwater model representing two-dimensional flow in unconfined
    aquifers is presented. The model is based on the paradigm of macroscopic
    cellular automata, that represents dynamical systems which are discrete
    in space and time, operate on a uniform regular lattice and are characterised
    by local interactions. Physically based equations are implemented
    to simulate the flow of water between adjacent cells. The model was
    validated against solutions of simple problems in both steady state
    and transient state conditions including analytical solutions and
    simulations performed with the MODFLOW-2000 model. The developed
    code is simple enough to facilitate its integration into other models
    such as land-surface models. The good performance without detriment
    to accuracy makes the model adequate to perform long simulation time
    analysis},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Dario Rametta and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.11.011},
    journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING \& SOFTWARE},
    pages = {634--643},
    title = {Macroscopic Cellular Automata for groundwater modelling: a first
    approach},
    volume = {26},
    number = {5},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • [DOI] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2011). A distributed thermodynamic model for energy and mass balance computation: FEST-EWB. Hydrological processes, 25, 1443–1452.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{corbari2011,
    abstract = {This article presents the development of distributed thermodynamic
    model for energy and mass balance computation between soil surface
    and shallow atmospheric layers and its inclusion into the hydrological
    model FEST-EWB (Flash-flood Event-based Spatially distributed rainfall-runoff
    Transformation-Energy Water Balance). This model is also thought
    for a synergic use of hydrological model with remote sensing data.
    In particular, the energy budget is solved looking for the representative
    thermodynamic equilibrium temperature (RET) defined as the land surface
    temperature (LST) that closes the energy balance equation for any
    pixel of basin surface. So using this approach, through the system
    between the mass and energy equations, soil moisture (SM) is linked
    to the latent heat flux (LE) and then to LST. The RET thermodynamic
    approach solves most of the problems of the actual evapotranspiration
    (ET) and SM computation. In fact, it permits to avoid computing the
    effective ET as an empirical fraction of the potential one. This
    approach, based on the RET, has been tested at field scale (10 ha)
    with energy fluxes and LST measured with an eddy covariance station
    in Landriano (Italy)},
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1002/hyp.7910},
    journal = {HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES},
    pages = {1443--1452},
    title = {A distributed thermodynamic model for energy and mass balance computation:
    {FEST-EWB}},
    volume = {25},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Giudici, I., Schmidt, C., & Mancini, M.. (2011). Evaluating the potential of quarry lakes for supplemental irrigation. Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, 137, 564–571.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ravazzani2011b,
    abstract = {Population growth coupled with industrialization, increasing effects
    of climate change, and increasingly stringent water management regulations
    regarding the conservation of aquatic life are resulting in previously
    unknown agricultural water shortages in Padana Valley, Italy. To
    mitigate water shortage, it was recently proposed to use the water
    stored into numerous quarries of gravel material. Because quarry
    lakes are mostly located in the proximity of watercourses, aquifer
    drawdown induced by pumping can affect flow in nearby streams.
    The evaluation of the potential of quarry lakes for supplemental irrigation
    has to face stream depletion that is crucial from the perspective
    of the legal rights of the downstream users and ecosystem sustainability.
    The work presented in this paper investigates the potential of a
    quarry lake in Padana Valley to sustain irrigated crop water requirement
    during shortage periods. A simple and quite inexpensive technique
    for assessing streambed conductance based on streambed temperature
    measurements is presented. The results show that quarry lakes may
    be a promising alternative resource for supplemental irrigation during
    shortage periods, even when a watercourse is present in the surrounding
    area},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Ilaria Giudici and Christian Schmidt and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000321},
    journal = {JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING},
    pages = {564--571},
    title = {Evaluating the potential of quarry lakes for supplemental irrigation},
    volume = {137},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • [DOI] Miliani, F., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2011). Adaptation of precipitation index for the estimation of Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) in large mountainous basins. Journal of hydrologic engineering, 16, 218–227.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{miliani2011,
    abstract = {The Soil Conservation Service-curve number (SCS-CN) method is widely
    used in hydrologic practice, but its application often goes beyond
    the purpose of its original use. Common practice makes the method
    dependent on the antecedent precipitation index, a simple indicator
    derived from rainfall depth, which can be used to estimate the antecedent
    moisture condition (AMC) of soil. By taking data from an unspecified
    location in the United States, the SCS defined the appropriate AMC
    level based on the total five-day antecedent rainfall for dormant
    and growing seasons. These values, originally defined as an example
    practice at the plot scale, were subsequently adopted for general
    use without full awareness of scale effects and regional differences.
    We propose a revision to the amount of antecedent rainfall for the
    definition of AMC of soil, based on the minimization of the errors
    between an estimated and an observed runoff volume of 347 rainfall-runoff
    events in large mountain basins in Italy and Switzerland. A significant
    correlation between the new thresholds and the topographic index
    is shown, thus permitting extension of the method to basins not included
    in this study. },
    author = {Fausto Miliani and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000307},
    journal = {JOURNAL OF HYDROLOGIC ENGINEERING},
    pages = {218--227},
    title = {Adaptation of precipitation index for the estimation of {A}ntecedent
    {M}oisture {C}ondition ({AMC}) in large mountainous basins},
    volume = {16},
    year = {2011}
    }
  • Masseroni, D., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., & Mancini, M.. (2011). Correlazione tra la dimensione del footprint e le variabili esogene misurate da stazioni eddy covariance in pianura Padana, Italia.. Italian journal of agrometeorology, 1, 25–36.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{masseroni2011,
    abstract = {This article aims to compare the footprint size, estimated by a hybrid model, with the main exogenous
    variables measured by eddy covariance station. The empirical equations that have been obtained in this article comes
    from the analysis of the data measured by {L}ivraga ({LO}) station, and then validated using the data by Landriano (PV)
    station. The eddy stations are located in a maize field in Po Valley. Furthermore, we want to define some universal
    relations between the footprint size and these variables and, if necessary, to use the dimensionless variables. The hybrid
    model is based on a combination of Lagrangian stochastic models and dimensional analysis. The advantage that this
    study can bring is to have an estimation about the dimension of the representative area that affects the measure of
    detectors, starting with the knowledge of simple parameters that can be measured easily. The practical purpose is to
    give, during the time of the project, the correct position of the eddy covariance station in the field, without using
    expensive instrumentations such as sonic anemometer and gas analyzer. Although, the results of direct comparisons
    between the footprint and exogenous variables are not very satisfactory, while the comparison between exogenous
    variables and stability parameter of the atmosphere is particularly interesting. From this comparison we obtained
    some empirical relations that can be applied to different sites.},
    author = {Daniele Masseroni and Giovanni Ravazzani and Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini},
    journal = {ITALIAN JOURNAL OF AGROMETEOROLOGY},
    pages = {25--36},
    title = {Correlazione tra la dimensione del footprint e le variabili esogene
    misurate da stazioni eddy covariance in pianura {P}adana, {I}talia.},
    volume = {1},
    year = {2011},
    url= {http://www.agrometeorologia.it/documenti/Rivista2011_1/aiam_1_2011_masseroni.pdf},
    ISSN= {2038-5625}
    }

2010

  • [DOI] Pianosi, F., & Ravazzani, G.. (2010). Assessing rainfall-runoff models for the management of Lake Verbano. Hydrological processes, 24, 3195–3205.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{pianosi2010,
    abstract = {Growing human pressure and potential change in precipitation pattern induced by climate change require a more efficient and
    sustainable use of water resources. Hydrological models can provide a fundamental contribution to this purpose, especially
    as increasing availability of meteorological data and forecast allows for more accurate runoff predictions. In this article, two
    models are presented for describing the flow formation process in a sub-alpine catchment: a distributed parameter, physically
    based model, and a lumped parameter, empirical model. The scope is to compare the two modelling approaches and to
    assess the impact of hydrometeorological information, either observations or forecast, on water resources management. This is
    carried out by simulating the real-time management of the regulated lake that drains the catchment, using the inflow predictions
    provided by the two models.},
    author = {Francesca Pianosi and Giovanni Ravazzani},
    doi = {10.1002/hyp.7745},
    journal = {HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES},
    pages = {3195--3205},
    title = {Assessing rainfall-runoff models for the management of {L}ake {V}erbano},
    url = {http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.7745/abstract},
    volume = {24},
    year = {2010}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Rametta, D., & Mancini, M.. (2010). A simple goundwater model based on cellular automata paradigm. Paper presented at the XXXII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Palermo.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2010a,
    address = {Palermo},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Dario Rametta and Marco Mancini},
    title = {A simple goundwater model based on cellular automata paradigm},
    booktitle = {{XXXII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {1--10},
    note = {{P}alermo, 14-17 September 2010}
    }
  • [DOI] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2010). Evaluating the uncertainty of hydrological model simulations coupled with meteorological forecasts at different spatial scales. Procedia – social and behavioral sciences, 2(6), 7631-7632.
    [Bibtex]
    @article{ceppi2010,
    title = "Evaluating the uncertainty of hydrological model simulations coupled with meteorological forecasts at different spatial scales ",
    journal = "Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences ",
    volume = "2",
    number = "6",
    pages = "7631 - 7632",
    year = "2010",
    note = "Sixth International Conference on Sensitivity Analysis of Model Output ",
    issn = "1877-0428",
    doi = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.05.152",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810012930",
    author = "Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini",
    keywords = "Hydro-meteorological chain",
    keywords = "hydrological model uncertainty",
    keywords = "Map-D-Phase",
    keywords = "\{QDF\}",
    keywords = "ensemble hydrological forecast ",
    abstract = "In recent years, the interest in the prediction and prevention of natural
    hazards related to hydro-meteorological events has increased the challenge for
    numerical weather modeling, in particular for limited area models, to improve the
    Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts for hydrological purposes. In this study a
    hindcast for some precipitation events, occurred in Piemonte region and in the
    Maggiore Lake basin, is analyzed to evaluate how the uncertainty of meteorological
    forecasts influences the performance of hydrological predictions at different spatial
    scales. This hydro-meteorological chain includes both probabilistic forecasting based
    on ensemble prediction systems and deterministic forecasts based on high resolution
    atmospheric models. The hydrological model used to generate the runoff simulations
    is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. "
    }
  • [PDF] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., Ceppi, A., Masseroni, D., & Mancini, M.. (2010). Uso di misure eddy correlation e di un modello di bilancio di massa ed energia per meglio interpretare i flussi misurati. Paper presented at the XXXII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Palermo.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{corbari2010a,
    address = {Palermo},
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Alessandro Ceppi and
    Daniele Masseroni and Marco Mancini},
    title = {Uso di misure eddy correlation e di un modello di bilancio di massa ed energia per meglio interpretare i flussi misurati},
    booktitle = {{XXXII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    year = {2010},
    pages = {1--10},
    note = {{P}alermo, 14-17 September 2010}
    }
  • Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2010). LST from remote sensing and ground observation for the validation of a distributed hydrologic model at basin scale. Paper presented at the Proceedings of earth observation and water cycle science sp-674, Frascati.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{corbari2010b,
    address = {Frascati},
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science SP-674},
    pages = {1--8},
    title = {{LST} from remote sensing and ground observation for the validation
    of a distributed hydrologic model at basin scale},
    editor = { H. Lacoste},
    ISBN = {978-92-9221-238-4},
    note = "Symposium Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science",
    volume = {SP-674},
    year = {2010}
    }
  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Corbari, C., & Ravazzani, G.. (2010). Osservazioni satellitari e misure al suolo per la stima dei bilanci idrici. Paper presented at the Galileo e l’acqua:guardare il cielo per capire la Terra, Roma.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{mancini2010,
    address = {Roma},
    author = {Marco Mancini and Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani},
    booktitle = {Galileo e l'acqua:guardare il cielo per capire la {T}erra },
    pages = {93--104},
    title = {Osservazioni satellitari e misure al suolo per la stima dei bilanci
    idrici},
    editor = { Lucio Ubertini, Piergiorgio Manciola, Arnaldo Pierleoni},
    ISBN = {978-88-9585-226-3},
    note = "CNR sede centrale, Sala Marconi, Archivio di Stato
    di Roma, Biblioteca Alessandrina Roma 17-18 Dicembre 2009",
    year = {2010}
    }

2009

  • [PDF] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2009). La temperatura superficiale da sensore remoto e da un modello distribuito di bilancio idrologico ed energetico per la gestione della risorsa idrica. Paper presented at the Ricerca e innovazione nell’ingegneria dei biosistemi agro-territoriali, Ischia (NA).
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{corbari2009a,
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    address = {Ischia (NA)},
    booktitle = {Ricerca e innovazione nell'ingegneria dei biosistemi agro-territoriali},
    month = { 12-16 September 2009},
    pages = {44--54},
    title = {La Temperatura superficiale da sensore remoto e da un modello distribuito
    di bilancio idrologico ed energetico per la gestione della risorsa
    idrica},
    note = "{IX} Convegno Nazionale dell'Associazione Italiana di Ingegneria Agraria",
    ISBN = {978-88-8997-213-7},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., & Meroni, C.. (2009). Design hydrograph and routing scheme for flood mapping in a dense urban area. Urban water journal, 6, 221–231.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ravazzani2009,
    abstract = {Definition of flood risk maps is a task to which modern surface hydrology
    devotes substantial research effort. Their
    impact on the management of flood-prone, dense, urban areas has increased
    the need for better investigation of
    inundation dynamics. The problems associated with the aforementioned
    topics range from the definition of the
    design hydrograph and the identification of the surface boundary conditions
    for the flood routing over the
    inundation plan, to the choice of the hydrodynamic model to simulate
    urban flooding. Most of academic and
    commercial mathematical models, solving the De Saint Venant equations,
    fail on complex topography. Frequently
    encountered difficulties concern steep slopes, geometric discontinuities,
    mixed flow regimes, and initially dry areas.
    In the present paper, flood routing modelling approaches in urban
    areas and principles for the definition of the
    design flood events are outlined. The paper shows how urban flooding
    can be simulated by a quasi-2D
    hydrodynamic model that makes use of a network of connected channels
    and storages to simulate flow, respectively,
    on the streets and into the building blocks. Furthermore, the paper
    shows that, when flood hazard is assessed by
    considering flood extent, water depth and flow velocity, an in-depth
    analysis of the use of design hydrographs that
    maximise peak flow or inundation volume is needed.},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and Claudio Meroni},
    doi = {10.1080/15730620902781434},
    journal = {URBAN WATER JOURNAL},
    keywords = {design hydrograph, distributed hydrological model, flood hazard maps,
    quasi-2D hydraulic model, urban flood},
    pages = {221--231},
    publisher = {Taylor and Francis},
    title = {Design hydrograph and routing scheme for flood mapping in a dense
    urban area},
    volume = {6},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [PDF] Ceppi, A., Ravazzani, G., Rabuffetti, D., & Mancini, M.. (2009). Hydro-meteorological chain for flood forecasting in the toce basin: a multi-model comparison. Paper presented at the Challenges in hydrometeorological forecasting in complex terrain, Bologna.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ceppi2009,
    address = {Bologna},
    author = {Alessandro Ceppi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Davide Rabuffetti and Marco Mancini},
    month = {22 May 2008},
    booktitle = {Challenges in hydrometeorological forecasting in complex terrain},
    pages = {73--80},
    title = {Hydro-meteorological chain for flood forecasting in the Toce basin:
    a multi-model comparison},
    url = {http://www.smr.arpa.emr.it/dphase-cost/master_proceeding_final.pdf},
    note = "Joint MAP D-PHASE Scientific Meeting – COST 731 mid-term seminar",
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Rabuffetti, D., Ravazzani, G., Barbero, S., & Mancini, M.. (2009). Operational flood-forecasting in the piemonte region – development and verification of a fully distributed physically-oriented hydrological model. Advances in geosciences, 17, 111–117.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{rabuffetti2009,
    abstract = {A hydrological model for real time flood forecasting
    to Civil Protection services requires reliability and rapidity.
    At present, computational capabilities overcome the rapidity needs even
    when a fully distributed hydrological model is adopted for a large
    river catchment as the Upper Po river basin closed at Ponte Becca
    (nearly 40 000 km2). This approach allows simulating the whole domain
    and obtaining the responses of large as well as of medium and little
    sized sub-catchments. The FEST-WB hydrological model (Mancini, 1990;
    Montaldo et al., 2007; Rabuffetti et al., 2008) is implemented. The
    calibration and verification activities are based on more than 100
    flood events, occurred along the main tributaries of the Po river in
    the period 2000–2003. More than 300 meteorological stations are used
    to obtain the forcing fields, 10 cross sections with continuous and
    reliable discharge time series are used for calibration while
    verification is performed on about 40 monitored cross sections.
    Furthermore meteorological forecasting models are used to force
    the hydrological model with Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts
    (QPFs) for 36 h horizon in "operational setting" experiments.
    Particular care is devoted to understanding how QPF affects the
    accuracy of the Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs) and to
    assessing the QDF uncertainty impact on the warning system reliability.
    Results are presented either in terms of QDF and of warning issues
    highlighting the importance of an "operational based" verification approach.},
    author = {Davide Rabuffetti and Giovanni Ravazzani and Secondo Barbero and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.5194/adgeo-17-111-2009},
    journal = {Advances in Geosciences},
    pages = {111--117},
    title = {Operational flood-forecasting in the Piemonte region - Development
    and verification of a fully distributed physically-oriented hydrological
    model},
    volume = {17},
    year = {2009}
    }
  • [DOI] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., Martinelli, J., & Mancini, M.. (2009). Elevation based correction of snow coverage retrieved from satellite images to improve model calibration. Hydrology and earth system sciences, 13, 639–649.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{corbari2009b,
    abstract = {The most widely used method for snow dynamic simulation relies on
    temperature index approach, that makes snow melt and accumulation
    processes depend on air temperature related parameters. A recently
    used approach to calibrate these parameters is to compare model results
    with snow coverage retrieved from satellite images. In area with
    complex topography and heterogeneous land cover, snow coverage may
    be affected by the presence of shaded area or dense forest that make
    pixels to be falsely classified as uncovered. These circumstances
    may have, in turn, an influence on calibration of model parameters.
    In this paper we propose a simple procedure to correct snow coverage
    retrieved from satellite images. We show that using raw snow coverage
    to calibrate snow model may lead to parameter values out of the range
    accepted by literature, so that the timing of snow dynamics measured
    at two ground stations is not correctly simulated. Moreover, when
    the snow model is implemented into a continuous distributed hydrological
    model, we show that calibration against corrected snow coverage reduces
    the error in the simulation of river flow in an Alpine catchment.
    },
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and
    Jacopo Martinelli and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.5194/hess-13-639-2009},
    journal = {HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES},
    pages = {639--649},
    title = {Elevation based correction of snow coverage retrieved from satellite
    images to improve model calibration},
    url = {http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/13/639/2009/hess-13-639-2009.pdf},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2009}
    }

2008

  • [PDF] Corbari, C., Horeschi, D., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2008). Land surface temperature from remote sensing and energy water balance model for irrigation management. Options méditerranéennes. série a: séminaires méditerranéens, A84, 223–234.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{corbari2008,
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Davide Horeschi and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    journal = {OPTIONS MÉDITERRANÉENNES. SÉRIE A: SÉMINAIRES MÉDITERRANÉENS},
    pages = {223--234},
    title = {Land surface temperature from remote sensing and energy water balance
    model for irrigation management},
    volume = {A84},
    year = {2008}
    }
  • [DOI] Rabuffetti, D., Ravazzani, G., Corbari, C., & Mancini, M.. (2008). Verification of operational quantitative discharge forecast (QDF) for a regional warning system – the AMPHORE case studies in the upper Po river. Natural hazards and earth system sciences, 8, 161–173.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{rabuffetti2008,
    abstract = {In recent years, the interest in the prediction and prevention of
    natural hazards related to hydrometeorological events has grown due
    to the increased frequency of extreme rainstorms. Several research
    projects have been developed to test hydrometeorological models for
    real-time flood forecasting. However, flood forecasting systems are
    still not widespread in operational context. Real-world examples
    are mainly dedicated to the use of flood routing model, best suited
    for large river basins. For small basins, it is necessary to take
    advantage of the lag time between the onset of a rainstorm and the
    beginning of the hydrograph rise, with the use of rainfall-runoff
    transformation models. Nevertheless, when the lag time is very short,
    a rainfall predictor is required, as a result, meteorological models
    are often coupled with hydrological simulation. While this chaining
    allows floods to be forecasted on small catchments with response
    times ranging from 6 to 12 hours it, however, causes new problems
    for the reliability of Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPF)
    and also creates additional accuracy problems for space and time
    scales.
    The aim of this work is to evaluate the degree to which uncertain
    QPF affects the reliability of the whole hydro-meteorological alert
    system for small catchments. For this purpose, a distributed hydrological
    model (FEST-WB) was developed and analysed in operational setting
    experiments, i.e. the hydrological model was forced with rain observation
    until the time of forecast and with the QPF for the successive period,
    as is usual in real-time procedures. Analysis focuses on the AMPHORE
    case studies in Piemonte in November 2002.},
    author = {Davide Rabuffetti and Giovanni Ravazzani and
    Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.5194/nhess-8-161-2008},
    journal = {NATURAL HAZARDS AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES},
    pages = {161--173},
    title = {Verification of operational Quantitative Discharge Forecast ({QDF})
    for a regional warning system – the {AMPHORE} case studies in the upper
    {P}o River},
    volume = {8},
    year = {2008}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Rabuffetti, D., Corbari, C., & Mancini, M.. (2008). Validation of FEST-WB, a continuous water balance distributed model for flood simulation. Paper presented at the XXXI convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Perugia.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2008,
    address = {Perugia},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Davide Rabuffetti and
    Chiara Corbari and Marco Mancini},
    booktitle = {{XXXI} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    month = {12 Settembre},
    pages = {1--8},
    title = {Validation of {FEST-WB}, a continuous water balance distributed model
    for flood simulation},
    year = {2008}
    }

2007

  • [DOI] Montaldo, N., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2007). On the prediction of the toce alpine basin floods with distributed hydrologic models. Hydrological processes, 21, 608–621.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{montaldo2007,
    abstract = {With the objective of improving flood predictions, in recent years
    sophisticated continuous hydrologic models including complex land
    surface sub-models have been developed. This has produced a significant
    increase in parameterization; consequently, applications of distributed
    models to ungaged basins lacking specific data from field campaigns
    may become redundant.
    The objective of this paper is to produce a parsimonious and robust
    distributed hydrologic model for flood predictions in Italian Alpine
    basins. Application is made to the Toce basin (area of 1534 km2).
    The Toce basin was a case study of the RAPHAEL European Union research
    project, during which a comprehensive set of hydrologic, meteorological
    and physiographic data were collected, including the hydrologic analysis
    of the 1996-1997 period. Two major floods occurred during this period.
    We compare the FEST04 event model, which computes rainfall abstraction
    and antecedent soil moisture conditions through the simple SCS-CN
    method, and two continuous hydrologic models, SDM and TDM, which
    differ in soil water balance scheme, and base flow and runoff generation
    computations.
    The simple FEST04 event model demonstrated good performance in the
    prediction of the 1997 flood, but shows limits in the prediction
    of the long and moderate 1996 flood. More robust predictions are
    obtained with the parsimonious SDM continuous hydrologic model, which
    uses a simple one-layer soil water balance model and an infiltration
    excess mechanism for runoff generation, and demonstrates good performance
    in both long-term runoff modeling and flood predictions. Instead,
    the use of a more sophisticated continuous hydrologic model, the
    TDM, that simulates soil moisture dynamics in two-layers of soil,
    and computes runoff and base flow using some TOPMODEL concepts, does
    not seem to be advantageous for this Alpine basin
    },
    author = {Nicola Montaldo and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    doi = {10.1002/hyp.6260},
    journal = {HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES},
    pages = {608--621},
    title = {On the prediction of the Toce Alpine Basin Floods with Distributed
    Hydrologic Models},
    volume = {21},
    year = {2007}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., & Meucci, S.. (2007). Utilizzo plurimo dei laghi di cava nella gestione della risorsa idrica. Paper presented at the Approvigionamento e distribuzione idrica: esperienze, ricerca ed innovazione, Ferrara.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2007a,
    address = {Ferrara},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and Stefania Meucci},
    editor = {Paolo Bertola, Marco Franchini},
    booktitle = {Approvigionamento e distribuzione idrica: esperienze, ricerca ed
    innovazione},
    pages = {77--90},
    publisher = {Morlacchi},
    title = {Utilizzo plurimo dei laghi di cava nella gestione della risorsa idrica},
    ISBN = {978-88-6074-147-9},
    note = {Memorie del convegno di Ferrara, 28-29 Giugno 2007 },
    year = {2007}
    }
  • [PDF] Corbari, C., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2007). La simulazione degli afflussi ai laghi alpini ad uso plurimo per la gestione della politica di regolazione. Paper presented at the Atti del convegno approvvigionamento e distribuzione idrica: esperienza, ricerca ed innovazione, Ferrara.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{corbari2007,
    address = {Ferrara},
    author = {Chiara Corbari and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    editor = {Paolo Bertola, Marco Franchini},
    booktitle = {Atti del Convegno Approvvigionamento e Distribuzione Idrica: Esperienza,
    Ricerca ed Innovazione},
    pages = {65--75},
    publisher = {Morlacchi},
    title = {La simulazione degli afflussi ai laghi alpini ad uso plurimo per
    la gestione della politica di regolazione},
    ISBN = {978-88-6074-147-9},
    note = {Memorie del convegno di Ferrara, 28-29 Giugno 2007 },
    year = {2007}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., Giudici, I., & Amadio, P.. (2007). Effects of soil moisture parameterization on a real- time flood forecasting system based on rainfall thresholds. Iahs publication, 313, 407–416.
    [Bibtex]
    @Article{ravazzani2007b,
    abstract = {The rainfall threshold is the cumulated rainfall depth required to
    cause flooding flow at the basin outlet. Thresholds are used in operational
    flood forecasting systems as a means to provide flood warnings based
    on the comparison with rainfall amounts (either observed or forecast).
    This approach results in a simple system that can also be used by
    non expert technicians; it is a complementary tool to "classical"
    rainfall-runoff modelling systems. Despite the simple usage, a flood
    forecasting system based on thresholds requires great accuracy in
    definition of the critical rainfall. Special attention is required
    in modelling the basin moisture condition. The aim of this paper
    is to assess a reliability analysis of a framework for the definition
    of rainfall thresholds using the distributed hydrological model FEST.
    The AMC value (antecedent moisture condition) of the conventional
    SCS-CN method is employed to describe the soil moisture initial condition.
    The case study is the Arno River basin located in Italy. A detailed
    investigation of the most recent flood events shows that precise
    accounting of the watershed wetness based on analysis of actual soil
    moisture can improve the prediction accuracy of flood forecasting
    systems. },
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and
    Ilaria Giudici and Paolo Amadio},
    journal = {IAHS PUBLICATION},
    pages = {407--416},
    publisher = {IAHS Limited:Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford Oxford
    OX10 8BB United Kingdom:011 44 1491 692442, EMAIL: frances@iahs.demon.co.uk,
    INTERNET: http://www.wlu.ca, Fax: 011 44 1491 692424},
    title = {Effects of soil moisture parameterization on a real- time flood forecasting
    system based on rainfall thresholds},
    volume = {313},
    year = {2007}
    }

2006

  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., & Meroni, C.. (2006). Design hydrological event and routing scheme for flood mapping in urban area. Paper presented at the Annals of warsaw agricultural university – sggw land reclamation no 37, Warsaw.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2006a,
    address = {Warsaw},
    abstract = {Design hydrological event and
    routing scheme for fl ood mapping in urban area.
    Defi nition of fl ood risk maps is a task to which
    modern surface hydrology addresses a substantial
    research effort. Their impact on the government of
    the fl ood prone areas have increased the need for
    better investigation of the inundation dynamics
    [Fema 2002]. This identifi es open research
    problems such as: the defi nition of the design
    hydrograph, the identifi cation of the surface
    boundary conditions for the fl ood routing over
    the inundation plan, the choice of the hydraulic
    model that is the most close to the physical
    behaviour of the fl ood routing in the specifi c
    environment, such as urban areas or river valley.
    Most of academic and commercial mathematical
    models resolving the De Saint Venant equations
    in mono or bidimensional approach, fail on
    complex topography. Steep slopes, geometric
    discontinuities, mixed fl ow regimes, initially dry
    areas are just the main problems an hydraulic
    model should solve. In this study, we address two
    points: the defi nition of the critical event for an
    inundation area and a fl ood routing modelling
    technique for a highly urbanized fl at area. For this
    latter we show that, in urban areas, a modelling
    scheme of a network of connected channels
    and storages, gives a better representation of
    surface boundary conditions such as aggregation
    of buildings and road network and suffi cient
    accuracy for fl ood risk mapping purpose respect
    to a real 2-D hydraulic routing model.},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and Claudio Meroni},
    booktitle = {Annals of Warsaw Agricultural University – SGGW
    Land Reclamation No 37},
    pages = {15--26},
    title = {Design hydrological event and routing scheme for flood mapping in urban area},
    year = {2006}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Mancini, M., & Meucci, S.. (2006). Quarry plans in the management of water resources: case study of the river serio. Paper presented at the Sustainable irrigation management, technologies and policies, Bologna.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2006b,
    address = {Bologna},
    abstract = {This work investigates the possibility of rehabilitating and using
    volumes made available by the creation of quarries of inert materials
    in watercourse flood plains for the regulation of floods and for
    the maintenance of supplies in times of water scarcity. Such activities
    offer technical and economic synergies between the need for production
    of inert materials and the benefits that such excavations, given
    appropriate expedients, can provide both in reducing the flood risk
    and in mitigating shortages. The work in question fully complies
    with the terms of the Catchment Area and Water Conservation Plan,
    demonstrating moreover that the required rehabilitation operations
    are of low impact and are fully sustainable. The case study concerns
    the last stretch of the River Serio in the province of Cremona.},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini and Stefania Meucci},
    booktitle = {Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies},
    editor = {G. LORENZINI, University of Bologna, Italy and C.A. Brebbia, Wessex Institute of Technology, UK },
    pages = {267--276},
    title = {Quarry plans in the management of water resources: case study of
    the River Serio},
    year = {2006}
    }
  • [PDF] Miliani, F., Ravazzani, G., & Mancini, M.. (2006). Verifica di un indice di pioggia per la stima dell’umiditá del suolo antecedente ad eventi di piena in ambienti alpini ed appenninici. Paper presented at the XXX convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Roma.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{miliani2006,
    address = {Roma},
    author = {Fausto Miliani and Giovanni Ravazzani and Marco Mancini},
    booktitle = {{XXX} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    pages = {1--8},
    title = {Verifica di un indice di pioggia per la stima dell'umidit{á} del suolo
    antecedente ad eventi di piena in ambienti alpini ed appenninici},
    ISBN = {888724281X},
    year = {2006}
    }

2005

  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Martinelli, J., & Ravazzani, G.. (2005). Un modello distribuito di bilancio radiativo per la stima del bilancio idrologico a scala di bacino. In Paolillo, P. L. (Ed.), In Rendiconti cremonesi – il contributo del politecnico di milano alla conoscenza delle dinamiche evolutive nel territorio di cremona (, pp. 201–213). Milano: Clup.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inbook{mancini2005,
    address = {Milano},
    author = {Marco Mancini and Jacopo Martinelli and Giovanni Ravazzani},
    booktitle = {Rendiconti Cremonesi – Il contributo del Politecnico di Milano alla
    conoscenza delle dinamiche evolutive nel territorio di Cremona},
    editor = {Pier Luigi Paolillo},
    pages = {201--213},
    place = {MILANO},
    publisher = {CLUP},
    title = {Un modello distribuito di bilancio radiativo per la stima del bilancio
    idrologico a scala di bacino},
    year = {2005}
    }

2004

  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Martinelli, J., & Ravazzani, G.. (2004). Un modello distribuito di bilancio radiativo per la stima del bilancio idrologico a scala di bacino. Paper presented at the XIX convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Trento.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{mancini2004,
    address = {Trento},
    author = {Marco Mancini and Jacopo Martinelli and Giovanni Ravazzani},
    booktitle = {{XIX} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    pages = {779--786},
    title = {Un modello distribuito di bilancio radiativo per la stima del bilancio
    idrologico a scala di bacino},
    volume = {2},
    ISBN = {8877403829},
    year = {2004}
    }
  • [PDF] Amadio, P., Mancini, M., & amd Ravazzani, G. M. G.. (2004). Analisi di affidabilitá del sistema di preallerta di piena in tempo reale MIMI per il bacino del fiume Arno. Paper presented at the XIX convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Trento.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{amadio2004,
    address = {Trento},
    author = {Paolo Amadio and Marco Mancini and Giovanni Menduni amd Giovanni Ravazzani},
    booktitle = {{XIX} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    pages = {901--908},
    title = {Analisi di affidabilit{á} del sistema di preallerta di piena in tempo
    reale {MIMI} per il bacino del fiume {A}rno},
    volume = {3},
    ISBN = {8877403829},
    year = {2004}
    }

2003

  • [PDF] Amadio, P., Mancini, M., Menduni, G., Rabuffetti, D., & Ravazzani, G.. (2003). A real time flood forecasting system based on rainfall thresholds working on the arno watershed: definition and reliability analysis. Paper presented at the 5th plinius conference on mediterranean storms, Ajaccio.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{amadio2003,
    address = {Ajaccio},
    author = {Paolo Amadio and Marco Mancini and Giovanni Menduni
    and Davide Rabuffetti and Giovanni Ravazzani},
    booktitle = {5th Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms},
    pages = {1--8},
    title = {A Real Time Flood Forecasting System Based on Rainfall Thresholds
    Working on the Arno Watershed: Definition and Reliability Analysis},
    year = {2003}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Montaldo, N., Mancini, M., & Rosso, R.. (2003). The role of the antecedent soil moisture condition on the distributed hydrologic modelling of the toce alpine basin floods. Paper presented at the International conference on alpine meteorology and map-meeting, Brig.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2003,
    address = {Brig},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Nicola Montaldo and Marco Mancini and Renzo Rosso},
    booktitle = {International conference on Alpine Meteorology and MAP-meeting},
    pages = {372--375},
    title = {The role of the antecedent soil moisture condition on the distributed
    hydrologic modelling of the Toce alpine basin floods},
    year = {2003}
    }

2002

  • [PDF] Mancini, M., Mazzetti, P., Nativi, S., Rabuffetti, D., Ravazzani, G., Amadio, P., & Rosso, R.. (2002). Definizione di soglie pluviometriche di piena per la realizzazione di un sistema di allertamento in tempo reale per il bacino dell’Arno a monte di Firenze. Paper presented at the XVIII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Potenza.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{mancini2002,
    address = {Potenza},
    author = {Marco Mancini and Paolo Mazzetti and Stefano Nativi and
    Davide Rabuffetti and Giovanni Ravazzani and Paolo Amadio and Renzo Rosso},
    booktitle = {{XVIII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    pages = {497--514},
    title = {Definizione di soglie pluviometriche di piena per la realizzazione
    di un sistema di allertamento in tempo reale per il bacino dell'{A}rno
    a monte di {F}irenze},
    volume = {2},
    ISBN = {8877403403},
    year = {2002}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Montaldo, N., & Mancini, M.. (2002). Modellistica idrologica distribuita per il caso di studio del bacino del fiume Toce. Paper presented at the XVIII convegno nazionale di idraulica e costruzioni idrauliche, Potenza.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2002a,
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Nicola Montaldo and Marco Mancini},
    address = {Potenza},
    booktitle = {{XVIII} Convegno Nazionale di
    Idraulica e Costruzioni Idrauliche},
    pages = {341--348},
    title = {Modellistica idrologica distribuita per il caso di studio del bacino
    del fiume {T}oce},
    volume = {1},
    ISBN = {8877403403},
    year = {2002}
    }
  • [PDF] Ravazzani, G., Toninelli, V., Mancini, M., & Montaldo, N.. (2002). Modellistica distribuita di bilancio idrologico: il caso di studio del bacino del fiume Toce. Paper presented at the Conferenza internazionale acqua e irrigazione, Cremona.
    [Bibtex]
    @Inproceedings{ravazzani2002b,
    address = {Cremona},
    author = {Giovanni Ravazzani and Vania Toninelli and Marco Mancini and Nicola Montaldo},
    booktitle = {Conferenza Internazionale Acqua e Irrigazione},
    pages = {323--329},
    publisher = {Sometti},
    title = {Modellistica distribuita di bilancio idrologico: Il caso di studio
    del bacino del fiume {T}oce},
    year = {2002}
    }